Special surfaces for exchange
All living thigns need certain substances to sustain life name them? What they are for? Where may organisms get these from? Or? As part of? in either case what must each living cell be able to do? what do all living cells need to remove? From where? What are these? What can single cells and small orgamisms exchange? Across what? what do they have large? What if ulticelluar becomes larger? What does it need more of? what does it mean its surface isn’t large enough to do? what would nutrients and gases also have to do more? What do larger organism need? What do they often combine?
All good exchange systems have certain features in common? Larg what? for? Thin what? for what? fresh what ? for what? removal of? why? what are the latter three important in maintaing? What do exchange surfaces also use? To do what? where aer exchange surfaces found? Examples?
The lungs as an organ exchange
Where are the lungs? What are they? Where does air pass through? Along? Then? And then? What is each part adapted for? What does the air then reach? Called? What is the exchange surface? What are the lungs protedcted by? What is the diaphragm? Movement of the ribs with the diagraphm help what? what are breathing movements called? What way do gases pass? Through? Where does oxygen pass from where to where? And co2? Name a feature? What provides the large usfrcae area? What size are alveoli? How large surface area? What is it larger than? What allows the diffusion of oxygen and co2? What walls are thin? What does this reduce? What do walls consist of? meaning? What are the capillaries in close contact with? Why is it good that the capillaries are so narrow? What lines the alveoli? What does this moisture pass? What happens as we breathe out? What must the lungs produce? To reduce? Without it wat would happen?
For diffusion to be rapid what is needed? what does this mean having a high? And low where? What is needed to maintain a steep diffusion gradient? And a way to remove what? what is this achieved by? What dose blood bring? From where to where? At does this ensure? What does it also carry? what dose this ensure? What does the heart pump blood along? In the lungs what does the artery do? forming? What do these eventually do? what do these capillaries lie over? Whatd oes the breathing movement of the lungs do? what do they replace? What does this bring more in where? Ensuring? What does ventialiation also remove? What does this ensure? To enhale what contracts? Becoming? External what contract? Raising? Volume of what increase? Pressure where drops below what? what does air do? do it for exhaling?
Tissues in the lungs
What are trachea bronchi and bronchioles? To be effective what size must the airways be? To allow? What must they also divide? Why? what strength? To prevemt? When does this low pressure occurs? What must they be? To allow? What must they be able to do?
What have similar structure? What do they differ in? whats narrower? What do they have thickness wize? What do they have several of? what is much of the wall? What is it in the form of? what is on the inside surface? What is it called? What is theinner lining? Two types of what? most jave? What is this called? Among them is? What are the bronchioles like?,what do they have some? Smaller ones? What is it made mostly of? what do the smallest have?
What role does the cartilage play? What dose it support? Holding them what? what does this prevnt? What does the cartilage not form? What is there some? What does this allow to move? Without? What does it also allow the oesophagus to do? what can the smooth muscle do? what will it constrict? What dose this make the lumen? Where is it move obvious? What does constricting the lumen do? when is controlling air flow to alveoli? Is it voluntary? What do some people have to certain substance in the air? What do the bronchioles do? making it what? what is this cause of? when smooth muscle contracts what does it reduce? Can the smooth muscle reverse this? When the airway constricts what deforms? As it relaxes what do the elastic fibres do? what does this help? What do goblet cells secrete? What does the mcus trap? What move them?
Measuring lung capacity
When resting what does air do? what rate? What contracts? And then? What does each breathe do? what happens If you exercise or are frightened? What does this get more? And removes? What is tidal volume? What does it provide the body? What is vital capacity? Where does it vary? What increases it? What is residual volume? What is dead space? What is there none of? what is inspiratory reserve volume? what can this be called? What is expiratory reserve volume?
What does a spirometer consist of? what doe a person do? attachted to? what does breathing in take? What does ti do? what about breathing out? And then? What records the movement of the chamber? What is produced? If someone breathes in and out of a spirometer what will increase? What is used? To do what? what will go down? Why? what does this allow to calculate?
Transport in animals
What do all living animals cells need? To? what do they need to remove? To avoid? What don’t very small animals need? Why? what will diffusion supply? When an animal has complex anatomy more than two layers of vells why isn’t diffusion enough? What are the three main factors that affect the need for a transport system? When an animal has more layers oxygen and nutrients diffusing in from the outside will be used by? What wont they reach? What do small animals have a large? Compared? What is this known as? What affects this ratio? Example? What is limited? To asllow animals to grpw to a large size what do thye neeD? What increases as their body gets thicker? What doesn’t increase? So what is the surface area to volume ratio? What about in large naimsl?
What do animals need? From? So they can do what? what releases energy froom food? What does it need? If an animal si active what do cells need? To supply what? what about mamals? Why? what will an effective transport system include? What is this? A pump to? this is~xchange what? that enable? What wwill it also include? What do fish have? where does blood flow from? To? and then? Before? What do mammals have? what is this known as? What does one circuit do? what is this called? The other carries what where? This is? What is the mammalian heart adapted to form? How many times does blood flow through?
Transport in animals
What will an efficient circulatory system deliever? How fast? Where? How can blood be made to flow quicker? What are the three advatnages of the single circulatory system? What don’t fish do? they need ;ess? What does their single circulatory system do? in the mammal double what can the heart do? what about the systemuic circulation? Why must the blood pressure not be to high? Mammals are active and maintain what? what does food give? What is it released in? to release a lot of energy the cells neeD?
The structure of the mammalian heart
What is the mammalian heart? What is it divided by? What does the right side do? the left side? What do both side do? what does this pressure do? where is the heart? What does the muscle surround? Called? What are above the ventricleS? Called? What are these in comparison? Where are the coronary artery? What do they do? why are they impprtant? If they become constricted what can happen? What dose it reduce? What may this cause? What aer at the top of the heart? What are these? What do they do?
What is the heart divide into? What are the two upper? What do these receive? From? What type of blood? Flow from where to where? Oxygenated blood flows from what organ? Flows from where into where? From the atria what does blood flow down through? Into? What are valves like? When the ventircles contract what do the valves do? and remain? What does this ensure? What are inside the ventricles? What do these attach? Preventing? What seperates the ventircleS? What dos this ensure? Deoxygenated blood leaving the right ventricle flow sinto wghat? Leading to? oxygenated leaving the left flow into? Carrying it to where? To do what? what is at the base of the major arteries? What do they prevent?
What does the muscle of each chamber contract to create? The higher the pressure the furhteR? What si the muscle of the atria? Why? what is their function? what about the right ventricle? What does this enable? What about the difference between right and elft ventricle? Why? what do lungs contain a lot of? what are the alveoli like? What could they do? what must be lept down then? What about the left ventricle? Why?
The cardiac cycle
What is important in contraction? What if they are out of sync? What is the sequence of contractions in on eheartbeat called? What is the first phase? What do both atria and ventricles do? what increases? What does blood do? from? Where does it flow first? Then through? Into? What is this called? When does the heartbeat start? What contract? What dose this small increase in pressure crated by? What does it do? what does this stretch? Ensuring? What is contraction of the atria called? Once the ventircles are full what do they do? what does blood fill? Causing? What does this prevent? What is there a short period of when? What contract? This called? What does this riase? Where?where doest eh contractiojn start? What is pished where? What pen? What is pushed out? How long is the contraction? What relax? Allowing?
What do valves ensure? How are they opened and closed? When do ventircles relax and recoil? What drops? Below what? what does this cause? What does blood entering the heart do? pressure in the atria and the ventricles does what? what remain open while the atria contract? As the ventricles begin to contract what rises? What happens when pressure rises above that in the atria? What does this movement fills? Making? What does this prevent? What valves are these? What are the other valveS? When the ventricles start to contract where is pressure highset? What does this mean for the valveS? What happens as the ventricles contract? Why? what does the pressure reach higher than? What open? What is the blood under? So it does what? when the ventricles walls have finished contracting the heart muscle does what? what does elastic tissue in the walls of the ventricels do? to do what? what does this cause pressure wizze? What happens as ti drops? By what? what does it prvent?
What is the sound of the hert really? The first sound is? And the second? What do the atrioventricular valves do? so what is the noise? Which shut because?
Control of the cardiac cycle
Why is cardiac muscle unusual? Because of this its described as? What will the muscle do? what do mucsles from atria and ventricles each have ? what is higher? What could this property cause?known as? What does the heart need? Where is the SAN? What does it stand for? What is it? What does it initate? When does it occur? What is it also known as? Where do the waves quickly spread? What does it travl along? As it passes what do the muscles do? what is this? What is at the base of the atria? What cant it do? what is the inter-ventircualr septum? What is at the top? What is the only? What is the exciation in the node? What does this allow? After the delay the wave is carried where? Called? What does it run down? What does it do at the basE? What happens as it spread uowardS? What do ventirlces do? pushing what where?
What can monitor the electrical acitivty of the heart? What does this involve? What does some of the electrical activity from the heart do? what do the senors pick up? Convert it to what? what do es the trace of ahealthy perso have? what does it consit of? what deos wave p show? Qrs? T? what can the trace indicate? What can it show the heart is doing? called? What if it sin fibirilation? What is fibrilliation? Or a heart attack? What can it show the heart it? Or purlkyne is? What do the heart muscle cells repsire? What must they have? why? what could a blood clot In the coronary artery do? what is this?
To be active what do muscles neeD? In mamamls where does the blood never geT? Where is it always? What animals don’t have this ? what do they have? what does this mean for blood? Instead what does it do? what about the tiusses and cells? In some animals the action of the body muscles help? In insects there is? Like ? what is it like? Where does it lie? Blood from the body enters where? Through? What does it then do? towards the? By? What does the blood do at the head? What do sone larger insects have? what do these do? why does an open system work for insects? So the blood doesn’t have to? what don’t they rely on blood for? What do they sue instead? What do larger organisms rely on? In a open what pressure is blood? And the flow? why wouldn’t this work for larger?
In larger animals where does blood stay? What bathes the tissues and cells? What does this enable the heart? Speed? What can it deliever then faster? And? What do fish have? what does this mean? Give the flow? what must there be at the gills and body tissues? Why?
What does blood flow through? What is each adapted for? In relation to? what do all types have? made of? called? How thick? Particarly like what? to reduce? What are the three? Where do arteries carry blood? Pressure? What must the wall eb able to do? what is the lumen? Thickness? Contains what/ to give? What does the wall have>? what does it allow the wall to do? and then? When? Where is this felt? What deos the recoil maintain? What does the wall also contain? That does what? what does the constrction do? what is this used to do? what is the endothelium? Where do veins carry blood? Pressure? What don’t they need then? Lumen? Walls thickness? Contain? What don’t they do? what do they contain? To help? As its thin what can be happen to it? By? What is applied to the blood? Forcing? What do capallaries have very walls? What do they allow exchange between? What do the walls consit of? reduceing? What is the lumen? What does it ensure? What does this help? Why? reducing?
Blood, tissue fluid lymph
What is blood? What does it consti of? in what? called? What does the plasma contain? Such as? What do cells include? Fragments called? What is similar to blood? What doesn’t it contain? What is the role of tissue fluid?
What happens when an artery reaches the tissue?then? what do these lead to? back to? so what do capillaries lead to? where is the pressure highest? Why? what is this known as? What will it push out? What can the fluid leave through? What is the fluid that leaves the capillary? What does it surround? So what can occur? Across? What is the processes? What enter where? What leaves where? What also has hydrostatic pressure? What will it do? what do both blood andtissue fluid contain? Giving them? What is less negative? What does this mean? By? Down? What has happened at the veins? What moves fluid back into the blood? What does it carry? such as?
Does all the tissue fluid return? What does some do? what dose the lymphatic system consist of? similar to? where do they start? And do what? rejoining? What is lymph fluid similar to? contains? What is there less? Why? what will there be more of? why? what does lymph also have? why? whats the main difference between lymph and tissue fluid? What are they produced by? What are the lymph nodeS? Found/ what do they filter? From? What can the lymphocytes then do? what si this part of? name the cells, prteins, fats, glucose amino aicds oxygn and co2 in Blood, tissue fluid and lymph?
Carriage of oxygen
Where is oxygen carried? What do they contain? What does it become when itakes up oxygen? What does haemoglobin have? what does each consists of? and? What does the heam group contain? In what form? What can it attract? What is heam group said to have? what can each hold? So each haemoglobin molecule can hold? Where is oxygen absorbed? What do they diffuse into? Enter? What are they taken up by? What does it take oxygen out of? maintains? What does this allow? What do cells need? For? What must the oxyhaemoglbin be able to do? called?
What does the ability of haemoglobin to take oxygen depend on? What is it measured by? What is this called? What is it also called? What do we expect the amount of oxygen absorbed tbe proportional to? what would the grapoh looked? Like ? is this the case? What can haemoglobin take up? What is produced? What is this calleD? At low oxygen tension what doesn’t happen? Why? what is difficult? What does this combined with what account for? What happens as the oxygen tension rises? Eventauilly what happen? And does what? what doe this cuase? Known as? What does it allow more? How? What does this account for? Once it contains three moelcules what happens? What is difficult to achieve? Evene when? What does the curve do? desoute/ what is mamlian haemoglobin adaped for? What is the oxygen tension in the lungs? What about repsiring body tissues? Causing?
What does the mammalian fetus have? what must fetal haemoglobin be able to do? in the placenta what must the fetal haemolgibn do? what does this reduce? What does this cause? So what is the curve for fertal haemoglbon?
Carriage of carbon dioxide
What releases carbon dioxide? What must happen to it? Transported where? What three ways is transported in the blood? As co2 diffuses intot he blod what does some enter? What does it combine with? Forming? What is this catalysed by? What does this acid do? releasing? What do the hydrogencarbonate ions do? into? What is the charge inide the red blood cells maintained by? What is this called?what ciuld th hydroigen ions cause? What prevent s this? What is acting as? As blood enters respiring tissues what is the haemoglobin carrying? In the form of? what is the oxygen tension? Than that of? why? what is the result?
What do the hydrogen ions released from the dissociaition of carbonic acid compete for? So when co2 is present what happens? Whats the result? when tissues such as contracting muscles are repsiring more what will there be more? As a result there are more? Produced where? What happens more? What is this? What happens at any given oxygen tension? So what is it when more co2 is present? What does this make? What is this called? What does this effect result in? what do the muscles need?
Transport in plants
What do all living thigns need to ? and? What does every cell of a multicellular plant need? What are the epithelial cells? What aer they close to? how could they gain these? Why is it not good enough? What is the hardest problem? What does the transport system move? In special tissue called? What needs to eb moved? Water travels in what direction in? suagrs travel inw aht direction in? what are both tissue highly? To do what? what is different to animals?
Where is the vascular tissue? How are the yxlem and phloem found? What do bundles also contain? What do they give?where is the vascular bundle found? What si the core? In the shape of? phloem? What does this arrangement proide? What is around the bundle? Called? What is its role? What is inside the endodermis? Called? Where are the vascular bundles found? What about in non-woody palnts? What does this mean there is under the tree? What does this arrangement provide? To withstand? Where is the xylem found? Phloem? What is inbetween them? What is the cambium? To do what?
What dot he vascular bundles form in the leaf? What are there two major groups? What are these names based on? What do these two groups have dufferent? What is dicotyledon? What can be seen within each vein?
Xylem and phloem
What is yxlem used for? From where to where? What does xylem tissue consist of? to do what? to do what? what are the most obvious features of xylem? What are these like? What do they have? what happens as the xylem develops? Whats the result? what does their end walls and contentns do? what does this leave? What does the lignin do? prevents? What does it keep the vessel? Even when? What does lignin thickening form? What may they be? What dose it prevent? What happens in some places? What does it leave? Called? What do these allow? What allows xylem to carry water and minerals from roots to the top of the plant? What are the tubes? So? Pits allow? Lignin allow? The flow of water is not impeded because?
What is the function of the phloem? Where could this be? What does it consist of? why aren’t the sieve tubes not true cells? How are they lined? What does this allow? What sugar? What is sucrose dissolved in? forming ? what is different to xylem? What do these cross walls have? allowing? What are the cross walls called? Tubes? What are the sirve tubles walls like? How many sided? What are in between the sieve tubes? What do each have/? what are these? What do they have numerous? To do what? needed for? What do the companion cells carry out? Needed by? Such as? What about the cytoplasm? What are these?
Plant cells and water
What is water potential ameasure of? where does water always move? What is the water potential of pure water? In the cytoplasm what does it contain? What does it reduce? What is this because of? what is the water potential in plant cells? What happens if a plant cells I s placed in pure water? By? Why? what wont the cell do? why? what is it described as? What does the water inside tsart to do? called? What happens as this increases? What if a plant is placed in a solotuion of low? Why? what does water do? what does the cell lose? What if it continues? What happens eventually? What is this called? What will lose what? what does pure water have? what do plant cells have? why? what do water moelcules do?
What can happen hen platn cells tought? What will water molecules do? what are the three routes? What do cellulose cell walls have? what can water do? what is this pathway? Where does the water not go? What can be carried then? Where can water enter? Through? What can it pass through between cells? What are the plasmodesta? What is linked? Once insdie the cytoplasm what can it do? what is this pathway? What can the water not be confined to? called?
Water uptake and movement up the stem
What are plant roots surrouned by? What is the outer most layer? What does it contain? What dose this do? what do these absorb? By? Using? What do the minerals do to the cell cytoplasm? What is taken up across? Via? Why? what is the movement of water driven by? Where? What is the endodermis? What is known as? Why? a sign what is ebeing used? What does the endodermis consist of? what si it called? What does the casparian ***** block? Causing what? what do the endodermis cells move? By? From? Into? What does this decrease? Where? Whats the result? where is water potential reduced? What also creates the water potentiakl gradeiebnt across the cortex? What does water move along? From? Across? Into? At the same time what can water do? what does it move into to join? Before?
What does the casparian ***** block? What does this ensure? What are in the cell membranes? What can nitrate then do? from to? what dose this lower? Where? So whath ahappens? What cant happen once water is in the xzylem? Why?
Water uptake and movement up the stem
What are the three processes that help to move water up the stem? What does the endodermis move? By? Drives? What does this forece where? What can push the water? Where? What cant it account for? What causes loss of water? Where? What must happen? What are water molecules attracted to? by? What is it strong enough to hold? Where aer they lost? What does this cuase? What is created? What does the pull from above create? What must happen to xylem vessels? What does it prevent? What is the theory called? What does it rely on the plant though? What if the water column is broken? Via? What do the water molecule forces holding them together also attract what is this called? What are the xylem vesses? What does this cause? Where does most wter leave? Through? What are these? What does a tiny amount leave? Where does water evaporate from? Where? What dose this lower causing? What does water then do?
What is transpiration? What does water enter? And passes to? via? Where does water evaporate? Tof orm? What do the spongy mesophyll cells have? what do they help? What does the water vapour do? what rises? When will it leae? Via? What provides an easy route? When are they open? To allow what? what three process does transpiration involve?
As water leaves the xylem in the lead what must happen to it? What doe swater do? give give reasons why the movement of water up the stem is useful to the plant? What does a photometer do? is it exact? Why? how much is lost? What is it impornt that are none of? water lost in the leaf is replaced by? What measures it? What can it help?
What weill increase water loss? For these features give how it affecst water loss? Number of leaves, number size and position of stomata, presecence of cuticle, light, temperature, relative humidity, air movement or wind, water avaliabilty? What if water is loss by tranpsirtion is greater than water uptake from the soil? What will non woody plants do? what about wood y plants?
Reducing water loss- xerophtytes
What is unavoidable? Why? during the day what do plants do a lot? Used in? what must they also do? why? when must the stomata open? Whilst open what is easy? Give four ways plants reduce this loss? What if water loss is greater than uptake? What happens? Undergo? What will this causes non-woody? What are some plants wwell adapted for? What are thye known as? What do they have? smaller? Shaped like? Why? so? Densely pacled?why? so? Thicker waxy? Why? closing? Why? hairs where? Why? so? Pits containing? Why? so? Rolling what? why? so? What do some plants have low? How is it achieved? Why? so?
The movement of sugars- translocation
What is translocation? What are they transported in? what form? What release sucrose? Called? What is a sink? What loads the sucrose into the phloem? What is ATP used iby? To do what? what does this set up? What do hydrogen ions do? what does this dissuoon pccur through? What do they enable? What happens as the cocnnetration buildS? Through?
What does sucrose entering the sirve tube element do? whats the result? via? From? What does this increase? What is sucrose used in? what may it be converted to? for? Or? Such as? What dose this reduce? So what do they do in the sieve tube elemnts? What does this increase? So they do ? via? What does this reduce? Where? What produces a flow of water along the phloem? What does it carry? what is this called? Where direction? Depending? At the same time? Whats a source? What do leaves need? To do what? what sugar? Whats a asource? What is released? When? Why?
How do we know phloem is used? How do we know it needs atp? How do we know it uses this mechanism? Is there evidence against the mechanism?