Living organisms consist of cells
What does the cell theory state? What was used to uncover it? Why can’t we see cells with the naked eye? To investigate them what do we need to produce? What microscope was developed first? Then what? What has this allowed us to do? What have others studied in cells? What have the results enabled us to understand? As what increases the image blurs? Why is that? What does the term resolution refer to? to study cells and their components what is needed?
What do light microscopes use? How is it viewed? Producing? Where does light come from? Through what? Then through? What is the light focused on? Then through? How do we view speiciemsn at differnet magnifications? What are the lenses magnification? What is x100 calleD? What dose the eyepiece then do? What is the total magnification of a specimen? Advantages- what is max magnification? What is max resolotuion? What dose this mean? What is the limit due to? how can two objects only be distingued? How many specimens? What do they include? What can slo be viewed? Where are they used? Whats the disadvtnage?
What can be viewed directly? What is a lot of biological material though? Meaning? What does some material do when cut? What is the first step in preparing? What are coloured stains? That do? What does this allow? What do some stains bind to? what acetic prceom stein? What does gentian violet stain? What is the second stage? Whata re they embedded? What happens next? What doesn’t it do? What is this particuraly useful for?
cell size and magnification
Why do magnified structuires have to be made? Why don’t we use meteres? What is used? What is a mm divided by? Each one? What are animal cells usually? Does mm always work? What can this be divide dby? To? what does this help measure? What is resolotuiioon? What is it the smallest? What is the resolituin io eye? Light? Electron?
What can a micrscoep be fityted with>? What is this like? What happens as the specime n is viewed? What can be done? What is the eyepiece graticule? Meaning? The specimen looks bigger under magnificagtion is it? What does the eyepiece have to be for each lens?what is placed ona stage? How long is it? Divede? What is formula for actual size? Magnification?
Electron microscope and cell detials
What do light micrscoeps have low? What doe this mean if the image is above x1500? What dos the wavelength of visible light from? What dose this mean for structureS? What can achieve higher resolotuion? What do they generate? What does it have a wavelength of? How doe sit differ to light? What can it distinguish between? What dot hey use? Instead of? To do what? can we see elctrons? What is the image produced onto? What are they called? What is the resolution compared to the eye?
What are the two types of electron microscope? In transmission what do the electrons do? what about denser parts of the sample giving what? what is the image produced? What is the possible magnification? What do electrons do in scanning? What don’t hey do? what do theyd o? what is the final image? Of what part? What is the possible magnification?
Advantages- what is the resolotuion?c ompared to light microscope? What can it produced? Of whatin particular? What does the SEM produce? What can they reveal? What cant do this? Limitations- what deflect electron beams? Whats the problem? Are they cheap? What needs to happen to the sample? Which requires? Preparing samples why dix them? In dehydration? Embedded in? cut hw? Using? Stain it using? To do what? giving? Mount it? Place it where? What has confirmed they are accurate? What are they sometimes show in? are they natural? Using? What are some labelled as?
cells and living processess
What are the seven things all living things do? what don’t some bacteria do? but use what to obtain energy? What is it easy to see growth in? and reproduction in? what do some organisms consist of? What dot they still do? what do cells contain? That do what ?
Under a light microscope what can be seen? What are they called? Using what microscope is it possible to see? What is the inside structure called? someitmeS? Where are organelles found? Do they have the same function? What is this called? What do they do to each other? To do what?
What do cells also contain? Made of? What do they keep the cell? Provifing a? called? What are some fibres called? What are they like? What are they able to do? what do they cause? What dot hey also move? What aer other fibres called? What are they like? What are they made of? called? What are they used to do? what do proteins present in the microtubl;e do? give example? What are htye known as? What do they use to move?
Whats eukaryote? what are flagella and cilia? Wher edo they stick out? What is it made of? that contain? What are in the cnter? Whats the difference between them? What can flage;;e be seen? What does it move? Cilia? Why can they move? What were they first seen in? do bacteria have flagella? Hhow are they different? What are vesicles? Whats their function? What are in plant cells that aren tin animals? hat does the vacuole do? what is It filled with? Pushing what? making the cell? What does this help? Where is the plant cell wall? What are they made of? what is thus? What does it form? Why is it ridigd? What does it do?
Organelles sturcture, function and at work
What are many organelles? Making them form what? name the 8 organelles? Give the structure? Function? And which two that aren membrane bound/ which are in the plant? What does the synthesis of proteins require? What do some cells produce? What are hormones? What do they help? Plant example? Animal example? What are plant hormones usually called? Where are the instructions to make hormones? Known as? Where is a gene? What does the nucleus copy? Into what? what does the mRNA do? attachtes to what? what cant he ribosome be attachted to? what does the ribosome do? what happens to the assembled hormone? Where does it go? What does the golgi do? where is the protein? Moves where? What happens to it here?
What are some organelles bound by? What does this give the cell structure? What does it each organelle do? what are these cells called? What does eularyoic mean? All organisms have this cell structure apart from? What are cells of the kingdom prokartore? Size? In comparison to eukaryotic? What are their features in relation membraneS? What are they surrounded by? Made of? not? Do they have ribosomes? Whats the difference? Wher eis the DNa? Form of? called? Unlike the eukayrtic? What do they contaoin loops of ? called? Is th DNA surrounded by a membrane? What is the area called? Where does ATP production take place? called? Do they have flagella? How do they differ?
What are some prokayrotes renound for? Example? What are they resistant to? how? What can they share? Passing? What can they also pass resitant to? during? What does loads of research go into? Stopping the growth of? whilst not harming? Name four ways prokaryotes are important to humans?
Biolgoical membranes- fluid boundaries
What surrounds the cell? Serpeating? In erukaryotes where are membranes also found? As well as serpating is that their only function? are they the same? What are the five major roleS? What is the main component of a membrane? Whats its strucute? What is the head? Meaning? What about the two fatty acids tails? Meaning? What leads to these propertieS? What do molecules with charges that evenly distributed around the molecule not do? what do they do? where can this be seen? What about unevenly distributed? What if phospholipids are mixed with water? What does the head do? tails?
What if phospholipids molecules are compeltly surrounded by water? What stick in the water? What point outwards? In this state what can phospholipid molecules do? within? Like? Whats rare? Where cant the hydrophilic head go? What does this give the bilayer? Despite what? what is the phospholipid bilayer the same in? what does the hydrophobic layer formed by? What does it create? Why is the thin layer of oil idea? What can see membranes? What can? What is shown? How thick?
What would a simple phospholipid bilayer incapable of? and to fragile for? What is needed? for? What varies? Accoridn g to? what is the speiclisation of membarnes called? What do growing shoots contain? Muscle cell membrnes? Intenral membranes of chloroplasts? Plasma membranes of white blood cells? In multicellular organisms cell membarnes in specliased cells have what? as well as? Whata re all membarnes permeable to? why? why are some membranes more permeable? What are they? What are cell membranes are more permeable are described as?
The fluid mosaic model
What does the fluid mosaic model describe? What are the main features- bilayer of? forming? Various what molecules are found? Floating where? Are they free? Or bound? To what? what are extrinsic or intrinsic proteins? What do some molecules and proteins have attached to them? Whata are they called attachted to lipids? Attachetd to protienS? What does cholestoerl give membranes? Whcihc ells? What is this molecule? Where does it fit? What does it help? What can water and ions do?
what are the two transport proteins found in the membrane? Why cant sugar such as glucose pass directly through the bilayer? How do they enter and leave? What do carrier protiens do?plant example? Ensuring a supply of? when mineral ions are actively transported into the cell they lower wheat? What does this cause water do? what do nitrate ions do? lowering? Causing? What sites are also on the membrane? What do they allow to bind? So what is carried out? What can cells respond to? only when though? What are they important in binding? Affecting? What are also involved in cell signalling? Allow what? what can glycoproteins bind? Making? Where do some reactions in photosynthesis take place? Stages of respiration? Whay may be bound to these membranes? The more membrane the more? What does this help explain?
Increasing temp gives molecules what? so they do what? what doe sthis make membarnes? Which allows what? where can this be seen? Why? what do organisms living in very hot or cold enviroments need? Exmaple?
Communication and cell signalling
What do organisms need to detect? And do? give example? What must it do? and take what in? if it cant detct it what doesn’t happen? What will it do? what about inmulti cellular? What must they detect? Involved in? cells must then be able to carry out? What is compl;ex? In order to detct cells what do they need? Capable of? what are they known as? What are they often? Or?
In multicellular organisms communication molecule between cells is? What are hormones then? Produced by? Released where? A cell with the receptor for the hormone molecule is called? What does a hormone molecule do? why? what does this cause? Give an example? Where is it produced? Response to? what is insulin? What dose it attch? Including? What are these? When it attachtes what happens? What does this allow? What also does this apply to? what are they intednded to do? what are beta blovkers use dfor? What do some drusg mimic? Like?
What do viruses enter? How? Name one? What does this cuasE? How can it affect humans? Whats its shape? What cells? Such as>? When HIV engters such a cell what period happens? What does it evenautlly do? what do some poisons do? prevntign them from? Causing?
Crossing membranes 1- passive processess
In order to survive what do cells need a supply of? and? For? What are the reactions collecitlvy known as? What must be removed? To enter or leave any cell what will the molecules have to cross? In gas or liquid what do the ions do? what is the movement? Why? like where? What do they possess? What does it keep them? Process such as diffusion depend on what? what are they called? How are moelcules distirubted? Why? what is this called?
What will each molecule or ion do? can more than one move? Give example? When diffusion has taken place what do moelcules od? Does thjeri movement stop? What do they do? what is this state referred to as? What is there no ___ movement? In living organisms a number of actiivties and feature ensure what? example? What does this maintain? What type of process is diffusion? What does this mean moleucles continue to do? without? What do they have of their own? What is the rate of diffusion affected by (6)? State what happens when their increased?
As the membrane is phospholipid what can pass through the bilayer? What do they do? what about steroid hormones? What are small enough to pass through? Between? What cant pass through? What are involved? Because the proteins allow subsatnces to pass through th emmebrane what is the diffusion known as?m what are the two channel? What are they involve din? What are acrriers shaped like? Like? What happens when the moleucel fits? What do different membranes have? What does this mean cells and organelles have control over?
crossing membanes- active processes
Is diffusion enough for the needs of cells? For it to function what may it need? Why is it also bad? what are magnesium ions often? What do plants need them for? What must the plant be able to do? against? what do some carrier proteins act as? What are they similar to? what aer thye shaped? Described as? What do they carry? through? What cant these molecules usually do?how do they differ to those in facilliated diffusion? What do they use? What do they carry where? Speed? What can molecules do?
What does the enrgy used to pump moleucles across by acirve transoort cause to change? What does this shape change mean? What happens as the molecule is carried through? What does this change? What cant the moleuecle enter? Why? when can muscle fibres only contract? When a muscle is stimuatled to contract what is rleased? From where? Called? Whats the concentration? What happens when the muscle needs to relax again? By what?
What do some cells need to move? Where? What is this process called in and out? Why is this bulk transport possible? What does bulk transport require? What can the energy be used to move? To form? And move it where? Examplse of bulk transport- hormones? Plant cells? White blood cells?
water is a special case
What are water moleucels free to do? where will they diffuse from to? what if here is another substance in the water? What is a substance that can dissolve ein water called? What is the lqiudi it dissolve din called? The two togterh form? If sugar was preen **** wpuld water moleules do? what aer these no longer? What is water potential? What does sugar lower? Lowers what? the more solute the lower?
what has higher water potential pure water o rcells? Why? what about in plants? What is the cell memrbrane? What if a cell is place din pure water? What will the cell do? what will happen to animal cells? Plant cell? Will the cell burst? Why? what if they are placed in low water potential? What will the cell do? what will the animal cell do? what will the plantcell do? what is this called? What is water potential measured by? What does pure water have? What does dissolving solute do?
New cells- parent and daughter cells
What do some organism only consti of? what do toher shave? What do new daughter cells form from? In a seris of what? called? What must he daughter cells produced do? what does this apply to? where are chrosmomes in eukaryotic cells? What does each chromosome contain? What does thi include? called? What do chromsomes hold? Called? For amking what? the daughter cells produced in the cell cycle must contain what? so they must ocnatin a full what? from? How many in humans? Doe sit differ in organism?
In eukaryotes the moleucles of DNA that make up each chromosome ae qrapped around what? called together what are they called? What must happen before a cell can divide? What is produced? What is each? What do they remain held togeterh by? At this tage can they be seen by a light microscope? What does each chrosome consti of? what are these called? When they are sepearted what will they end up in? before this happens what must the chromatin do? forming? What is each one? In this state what can chrosmome do? can superocild chrosmomse perform ehir function? so what does the time need to be?
As they are replicated what move along the DNa strands? What do they check? If they aren’t copied properly what may the result be? What does this mean for the cell what time varies s between species?what is it also affcetd by? How long in prokaryotes? Yeats? What are the four stages> how long is mitosis? What is the remaining portion? What do the daughter cells also need a full set of?
Two nuceli from one
All organisms need to produce what? why (4)? What does mitosis refer to? what are the four phases? State what happens in each? What has chromosomes done in interphase? What do they do in prophase? Called? Can they be seen? Byw hat? What do they consist of? at this time what does the nuclear envelope do? what divides into two? What do they do? forming? What is this made of? what do the chrosomes then do? called the>? What do each become attached to? hat happens? What do the sisterfs bceom? What is each one to the other? What do the spindle fibres do? doing what? what do they assume? What happens as the separated sister chromatids reach the poles? What does the spindle do? what do the chromsomes do? can they be seen? What does the wholc ell do? each one containing? What is the splitting of the cell? What is the parent cell capable of? why?
What are there important difference s between? Where in animals capable of? and plants? What don’t plants have? where are the tu bulin protein thread made? Where doe s cytokinesis start in animals? plants?
cell cycles and life cycles are not all the same
What do some new cells from mitosis and cytokinesis do to the organisms? Example? What are the two organisms identical to? what can noth do? what are they called? What are all bacteria in a single colony produced by? Called? What are they also? What do many plants undergo? Using what? what are they derived from? What do example include? What can these sepciliased parts produce?what can these produce? What are they identical to? what are they known as? What is this form of asexual reproduction known as? What are bacteria? What do they have? what may they also have? what may these have genes for? What can bacteria swap? What are they used in? what do bacteria divide by? What does the term mitosis refer to? what have farmers practicsed? Examples? what are thye all? What are they then? What are they also identical to? in artificial cloning what do scientists place where? Where was this placed? What does ti act as? What was born? What the problem?
What does mitosis produce? What do they carry? what are they potentially capable of? what are these known as? What are they described as? How many stemm cells? Where in humans? What can they divide to produce? Why are their great interest in stem cells at present?
cell cycles and life cycles are not all the same 1
In anaimsl what are many cells capable of? what does this allow organisms to do? how? In plants where can this divison on happen? Known as? Where are thye located? What does it allow for an increase in? what are these tiny parts responsible for? In animal cells where does cytokinesis start? Descirb edas? What is it termed? What about in plant cells? What about cells of yeast? In what process?
What does sexual reproduction involve? Usually from where? To produce? What does each cell contribute? What does this mean must be produced? What are these called? Where are they from? Fused together form? Which then does what? to do what? what division produces gametes? Where does it take place? What do normal adult cels of eukaryotic contain chromosm ewise? What are thye called? What does their gemome consit of? what does each contain? But not the same? Called? During meiosis what does one member of each homologous pair do? what are the resulting daughter cells? What does each contain? Are the haploid identical? Why? why will they differ? What are these called? What are the two ways meisosis and mitosis differ? What are these features the result of? apart from?w hich are?
Within eukaryotic cells what are their differnet? Each perofrming? What do they contribute to? what do mitochondria do? ribosomes? What do they all sustain? What is their a limit to? what is this governed by? What do single celled organisms have large? What can they recueved and remove by what? what do multicellular have? what aren’t all cells in contact with? What does this mean they need? Forming what? to carry out? What do these functions include?
When organisms consist of many cells what will there be? In this way what will some cells perform? What do they become? What do we refer ti cells becoming specialised as? Cells can differentiate in a number of ways with changes to what?
What are erythrocytes? What are neutrophils? What do they have? what are both? What did they each bgin with? What do they both have the potential to? what are all blood cells produed from? Where? Celsl destined to become erythrocytes lose what? what are they packed full of? what does the shape do? what can they then do? how are sprm specilaised? How are root hair cell speiclaised? What do cells destined to become neutrophils keep? What does thei cytoplasm do? why? what is their role? What do lysosomes enable?
What do the millions of cells, ativites and functions need to be? To ensure what? what are the headings in the organisation of multicellular organisms? What is a tissue? How may the be found? Give examples in plants and anaimls? What is the next one? What are organs? Examples plants and anima;s? what is an organ system? Examples include?
Organising the organism
What do platns need to move? From where to where? What do they also need to? where do xylem and phloem come from? Such as? Meristem cells undergo what? to form? What does xylem tissue consist of? with what cells and fibres? What do meristem cells produce? That do what? what does lignin do? what does this do the cell contents? What do the ends of cells do? makibg it lik e what? what is xylem well suited for? What does it also help? What does phloem tissue consist of? what does the meristem tissue produce? Do their ends break downcompletly? But form what? what do the sieve plates allow? What is next to each sieve tube? What are companion cells very? What do they play a role in?
What are animal tissue grouped into four categores? Give their function? what are within these categories? Give example? What are the cells like? So they are very? What do the cells togeth form? What does this make them ideal? Such as? Where what can pass? What does it also form? Such as? What does it provide? What hold them in place? What is this scretd by? What is it made of? what does the basement membrane attach what to what? what is ciliated epithelial tissues made up of? where is this found? Examples? what is the part exposed in the tube covered in ? called? What do some cells produce? What does the cilia do? in the breath tract what is trapped in mucus? What do the ciliar do? what is wrong with smoking? What isn’t moved? Where can this also be seen?
Organising the organism 1
What are the major organs in plants? What is arranged to help maximise the rate of what? what are the requirements for photosynthesis? As the byprodycts of photosynthesis build what needs to happen? What are the waste? In oprder to meet these needs the leaf is adapted in a number ways? Transparent what? to allow what? what is underneath? What does it consit of? containing a lot of? thet contain? What does the spongy mesophyll layer like? What does it have many to allow? What does the lower eperdermis layer have? what dos this allow? What do the stomata have? what can they do? to what? how do they close? What supports the lead? As well as carrying? What dothese tissues transport? What are guard cells like? Where do they appear? Unlike the lower gow? What happens when water moved into these cells? Why do they stretch? What do the guard cells do? what is the pore ?
What work together to enable movement? When can this only happen? What is used as muscles and nerves work? What do they require? From? Which in turn receives? From?