Half - term Test: Revision

Biology Unit 1 - Revison

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There are two basic types of cells:

  • Prokaryotic - bateria and cyanobacteria ( which used to be called blue-green algae)
  • Eukaryotic - all other cells, such as protoctista, fungi, plant and animal cells. 
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Animal Cell

Animal cell (http://www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level/assets/learn_its/alevel/biology/cells-and-organelles/introduction-to-cells/animal-cell.jpg)

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Plant Cell


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Prokaryotic Cell

Prokarytoic Cell (http://www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level/assets/learn_its/alevel/biology/cells-and-organelles/introduction-to-cells/prokaryotic-cell.jpg)

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Difference between the cells

Prokaryotic Cells

  • Size: 0.5 - 5 µm
  • Cells Wall: Yes - contains pepitdoglycan
  • Genetic Materials: DNA is naked, a single circular molecule
  • Ribosome:  70S ribosomes (smaller)
  • ER: None
  • Golgi Apparatus: None
  • Mitochondria: No - respiration occurs on an in folding of the cell membrane mesosome 

Eukarytoic Cells 

  • Size: 
  • Cell Wall: Yes (plant) / No (animals)
  • Genetic Materials: DNA linear, associated with histones (proteins), in a nucleus, surrounding by a nuclear envelope.
  • ER: Yes
  • Golgi Apparatus: YEs
  • Mitchondria: Yes 
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Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

Endoplasmic Reticulum are: 

  • A system of flattened cavities lined by a thin membrane (cisternae) 
  • It is the site of the synthesis of many substances in the cell and so provides a compartmentalised area.
  • The cavities are also a transport system whereby substances move through them from one part of the cell to another. 

There are two different types of endoplasmic reticulum

- rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough er) 

- smooth endoplasmic reticulum (smooth er) 

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Endoplasmic Reticulum - Rough ER

  • Have ribosomes (which are made up of RNA & protein) attached to the cytosolic side of their membrane
  • Found in cells that are making proteins for export (enzymes, hormones, structural proteins, antibodies)
  • Thus, involved in protein synthesise
  • Modifies proteins by the addition of carbohydrates, removal of signal sequences
  • Phospholipid synthesis and assembly of polypeptides(http://crescentok.com/staff/jaskew/isr/anatomy/anatomy1/roughER.gif)
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Endoplasmic Reticulum - Smooth ER

  • Have no ribsomes atatched and often appear more tubular than the rough ER
  • Necessary for steroids synthesis, metabloilsm and detoxification and lipid synthesis 
  • Numerous in the liver 


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