Module 2 Section 1: Cell structure // 1. Cells and Organelles

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  • Created on: 07-03-18 10:53

Module 2 Section 1: Cell structure // 1. Cells and Organelles

Prokaryotes and eukaryotes



1.         Prokaryotic organisms are prokaryoticcells

(i.e. they’re single-celled organisms.

2.        Cells are smaller and simpler, e.g. bacteria.


1.         Eukaryotic organisms are made up eukaryoticcells.

2.        Cells are complex and include all animal and plant cells




Organelles are a part of cells. Each one has a specific function.

Cells ultrasound: when you examine a cell through an electron microscope, you can see its organelles and the internal structure of most of them.

Animal and plant cells

Animal and plant cells are both eukaryotic. Eukaryotic cells have more organelles and are more complicated than prokaryotic cells.



Animal cells









Plant cells

Have all the same organelles as animal cells but with a few added extras:

·        A cell wall with plasmodesmata (‘channels’ for exchanging substances between adjacent walls),

·        A vacuole (compartment that contains cell sap),

·        And chloroplasts.


Functions of organelles

Plasma membrane (Also called the cell surface membrane)

Description The membrane found on the surface of animal cells and just inside the cell wall of plant cells and prokaryotic cells. It's made mainly of lipids and protein.

Function Regulates the movement of substances into and out of the cell. It also has receptor molecules on it, which allow it to respond to chemicals like hormones.






Cell wall

Description A rigid structure that surrounds plant cells. It's made mainly of the carbohydrate cellulose.

 Function Supports plant cells.



Description A large organelle surrounded by a nuclear envelope(double membrane), which contains many pores. The nucleus contains chromatin (which is made from DNA and proteins) and often a structure called the nucleolus.

Function The nucleus controls the cell's activities (by controlling the transcription of DNA. DNA contains instructions to make proteins. The pores allow substances (e.g. RNA) to move between the


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