Biology 1 revision

  • Created by: Georgia
  • Created on: 14-04-13 15:35
The condition when the body does not get a balanced diet
1 of 95
Metabolic rate
The rate at which the reactions in our body take place, particularly cellular respiration
2 of 95
Passed on from parents to their offspring through genes
3 of 95
The quantity of matter in an object; measure of the difficulty of changing the motion of an object (in kilograms, kg)
4 of 95
A person is overweight if their body carries excess fat and their BMI is between 25 and 30
5 of 95
Microorganism which causes disease
6 of 95
Infectious disease
A disease which can be passed from one individual to another
7 of 95
Bacteria, viruses and other organisms that can only be seen using a microscope
8 of 95
Single-celled microorganisms that can reproduce very rapidly. Many bacteria are useful, e.g. gut bacteria and decomposing bacteria, but some cause disease
9 of 95
Microorganism which takes over body cells and reproduces rapidly, causing disease
10 of 95
White blood cell
Blood cell which is involved in the immune system of the body, engulfing bacteria, making antibodies and making antitoxins
11 of 95
Immune system
The body system which recognises and destroys foreign cells or proteins such as invaiding pathogens
12 of 95
Drug that destroys bacteria inside the body without damaging human cells
13 of 95
Culture medium
A substance containing the nutrients needed for microorganisms to grow
14 of 95
The nutrient jelly on which many microorganisms are cultured
15 of 95
When more cases of an infectious disease are recorded than would normally be expected
16 of 95
When more cases of a disease are recorded than normal in a number of different countries
17 of 95
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. An antibiotic resistant bacterium
18 of 95
Natural selection
The process by which evolution takes place. Organisms produce more offspring than the environment can support so only those which are most suited to their environment (the "fittest") will survive to breed and pass on their useful characteristics
19 of 95
The dead or inactive pathogen material used in vaccination
20 of 95
Introducing small quantities of dead or inactive pathogens into the body to stimulate white blood cells to produce antibodies that destroy the pathogens. This makes the person immune to the future infection
21 of 95
Giving a vaccine that allows immunity to develop without exposure to the disease itself
22 of 95
Nervous system
The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord where information is processed
23 of 95
Special sensory cell that detects any changes in the environment
24 of 95
A change in the environment that is detected by sensory receptors
25 of 95
Sense organ
Collection of special cells known as receptors which responds to changes in the surroundings (e.g. eye, ear)
26 of 95
Electrical signal carried along neurons
27 of 95
Basic cell of the nervous system which carries minute electrical impulses around the body
28 of 95
Bundles of hundreds or even thousands of neurons
29 of 95
Sensory neuron
Neuron which carries impulses from the sensory organs to the central nervous system (CNS)
30 of 95
Motor neuron
Neuron that carries impulses from the central nervous system to the effector organs
31 of 95
Effector organ
A muscle or gland that responds to impulses from the nervous system
32 of 95
Releasing chemicals such as hormones or enzymes
33 of 95
Rapid automatic response of the nervous system that does not involve conscious thought
34 of 95
A gap between neurons where the transmission of information is chemical rather than electrical
35 of 95
Reflex arc
The sense organ, sensory neuron, relay neuron, motor neuron and effector organ which bring about a reflex reaction
36 of 95
Menstrual cycle
The reproductive cycle in women controlled by hormones
37 of 95
Follicle stimulating hormone, a female hormone that stimulates the egg to mature in the ovaries, and the ovaries to produce hormones, including oestrogen
38 of 95
Pituitary gland
Small gland in the brain which produces a range of hormones controlling body function
39 of 95
Female sex hormone which stimulates the lining of the womb to build up in preparation for a pregnancy
40 of 95
Female sex organ which contains the eggs and produces sex hormones during the menstrual cycle
41 of 95
Contraceptice pill
A pill containing female sex hormones which is used to prevent conception
42 of 95
Oral contraceptive
Hormone contraceptive that is taken by mouth
43 of 95
Female sex hormone used in the contraceptive pill
44 of 95
Internal environment
The conditions inside the body
45 of 95
Organ which filters the blood and removes urea, excess salts and water
46 of 95
The liquid product formed by the breakdown of excess amino acids in the liver
47 of 95
Protein molecule which acts as a biological catalyst. It changes the rate of chemical reactions without being effected itself by the reaction
48 of 95
An organ that produces the hormone insulin and many digestive enzymes
49 of 95
The rosponse of a plant to light, controlled by auxin
50 of 95
The response of a plant to the force of gravity, controlled by auxin
51 of 95
A plant hormone that controls the responses of plants to light (phototropism) and to gravity (gravitropism)
52 of 95
A substance used in clinical trials which does not contain any drug at all
53 of 95
Double-blind trial
A drug trail in which neither the patient nor the doctor knows if the patient is recieving the new drug or the placebo
54 of 95
A drug that causes deformities in the fetus when given to pregnant women to prevent morning sickness
55 of 95
Drug which lowers the body cholesteral levels and improves the balance of HDLs and LDLs
56 of 95
A mental illness that involves feeling of great sadness that interfere with everyday life
57 of 95
A chemical which causes changes in the body. Medical drugs cure disease or relieve symptoms. Recreational drugs alter the state of your mind and/or body
58 of 95
Withdrawal symptom
The symptom experienced by a drug addict when they do not get the drug to which theu are addicted
59 of 95
Drug that is used illegally by some athletes to build muscles and improve performance
60 of 95
Special feature that makes an organism particularly well suited to the environment where it lives
61 of 95
Animal that feeds on plants
62 of 95
Animal that eats other animals
63 of 95
Organism which lives in environments that are very extreme, e.g. very high or very low temperatures, high salt levels or high pressures
64 of 95
Change the shape of an enzyme so that it can no longer speed up a reaction
65 of 95
Openings in the leaves of plants (particularly the underside) which allows gases to entre and leave the leaf. They are opened and closed by the guard cells
66 of 95
The pocess by which living organisms compete with eachother for limited resources such as food, light and reproductive partners
67 of 95
An area where an animal lives and feels, which it may mark out or defend against other animals
68 of 95
A pointed tube found in many female insects which is used to lay eggs
69 of 95
Indicator species
Lichens or insects that are particularly sensitive to pollution and so can be used to indicate changes in the environment pollution levels
70 of 95
Biological material from living or recently living organisms
71 of 95
Pyramid of biomass
A model of the mass of biological material in the organisms at each level of the food chain
72 of 95
Solar (light) energy
Energy from the Sun or other light source
73 of 95
The waste product formed by the breakdown of excess amino acids in the liver
74 of 95
Detritus feeder/decomposer
Microorganism that breaks down waste products and dead bodies
75 of 95
Sewage treatement plant
A site where human waste is broken down using microorganisms
76 of 95
Compost heap
A site where garden rubbish and kitchen waste are decomposed by microorganisms
77 of 95
Carbon cycle
The cycling of carbon through the living and non-living world
78 of 95
The process of burning
79 of 95
Organic waste
Waste material from living organisms, e.g. garden waste
80 of 95
Thread-like structure carrying the genetic information found in the nucleas of a cell
81 of 95
Asexual reproduction
Reproduction that involves only one individual with no fusing of gametes to produce the offspring. The offspring are identical to the parent organism
82 of 95
Sexual reproduction
Reproduction which involves the joinging (fusion) of the male and female gametes producing genetic variety in the offspring
83 of 95
Tissue culture
Using small groups of cells from a plant to make a new plant
84 of 95
Genetic modification/engineering
A technique for changing the genetic information of a cell
85 of 95
Adult cell cloning
Process in which the nucleus of an adult cell of one animal is fused with an empty egg from another animal. The embryo which results is placed inside the uterus of a third animal to develope
86 of 95
The process of slow change in living organisms over long periods of time as those best adapted to survive breed successfully
87 of 95
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
French biologist who developed the theory of evolution based on the inheritance of acquired characteristics
88 of 95
Charles Darwin
The Victorian scientist who developed the theory of evolution by a process of natural selection
89 of 95
A change in the genetic material of an organism
90 of 95
Natural clasification system
Classification system based on the similariities between different living organisms
91 of 95
The highest group in the classification system e.g. animal, plants
92 of 95
A group of organisms with many features in common which can breed successfully producing fertile offspring
93 of 95
Evolutionary tree
Model of the evolutionary relationships between different organisms based on their appearance, and increasingly, on DNA evidence
94 of 95
Evolutionary relationships
Model of the relationships between organisms, often based on DNA evidence, which suggests how long ago they evolved away from eachother and how closely related they are in evolutionary terms
95 of 95

Other cards in this set

Card 2


The rate at which the reactions in our body take place, particularly cellular respiration


Metabolic rate

Card 3


Passed on from parents to their offspring through genes


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


The quantity of matter in an object; measure of the difficulty of changing the motion of an object (in kilograms, kg)


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


A person is overweight if their body carries excess fat and their BMI is between 25 and 30


Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »