Biology 1 revision

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  • Created by: Georgia
  • Created on: 14-04-13 15:35
Malnourished
The condition when the body does not get a balanced diet
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Metabolic rate
The rate at which the reactions in our body take place, particularly cellular respiration
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Inherited
Passed on from parents to their offspring through genes
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Mass
The quantity of matter in an object; measure of the difficulty of changing the motion of an object (in kilograms, kg)
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Overweight
A person is overweight if their body carries excess fat and their BMI is between 25 and 30
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Pathogen
Microorganism which causes disease
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Infectious disease
A disease which can be passed from one individual to another
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Microorganism
Bacteria, viruses and other organisms that can only be seen using a microscope
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Bacteria
Single-celled microorganisms that can reproduce very rapidly. Many bacteria are useful, e.g. gut bacteria and decomposing bacteria, but some cause disease
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Virus
Microorganism which takes over body cells and reproduces rapidly, causing disease
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White blood cell
Blood cell which is involved in the immune system of the body, engulfing bacteria, making antibodies and making antitoxins
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Immune system
The body system which recognises and destroys foreign cells or proteins such as invaiding pathogens
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Antibiotic
Drug that destroys bacteria inside the body without damaging human cells
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Culture medium
A substance containing the nutrients needed for microorganisms to grow
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Agar
The nutrient jelly on which many microorganisms are cultured
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Epidemic
When more cases of an infectious disease are recorded than would normally be expected
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Pandemic
When more cases of a disease are recorded than normal in a number of different countries
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MRSA
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. An antibiotic resistant bacterium
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Natural selection
The process by which evolution takes place. Organisms produce more offspring than the environment can support so only those which are most suited to their environment (the "fittest") will survive to breed and pass on their useful characteristics
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Vaccine
The dead or inactive pathogen material used in vaccination
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Vaccination
Introducing small quantities of dead or inactive pathogens into the body to stimulate white blood cells to produce antibodies that destroy the pathogens. This makes the person immune to the future infection
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Immunisation
Giving a vaccine that allows immunity to develop without exposure to the disease itself
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Nervous system
The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord where information is processed
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Receptor
Special sensory cell that detects any changes in the environment
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Stimuli
A change in the environment that is detected by sensory receptors
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Sense organ
Collection of special cells known as receptors which responds to changes in the surroundings (e.g. eye, ear)
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Impulse
Electrical signal carried along neurons
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Neuron
Basic cell of the nervous system which carries minute electrical impulses around the body
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Nerve
Bundles of hundreds or even thousands of neurons
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Sensory neuron
Neuron which carries impulses from the sensory organs to the central nervous system (CNS)
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Motor neuron
Neuron that carries impulses from the central nervous system to the effector organs
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Effector organ
A muscle or gland that responds to impulses from the nervous system
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Secreting
Releasing chemicals such as hormones or enzymes
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Reflex
Rapid automatic response of the nervous system that does not involve conscious thought
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Synapse
A gap between neurons where the transmission of information is chemical rather than electrical
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Reflex arc
The sense organ, sensory neuron, relay neuron, motor neuron and effector organ which bring about a reflex reaction
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Menstrual cycle
The reproductive cycle in women controlled by hormones
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FSH
Follicle stimulating hormone, a female hormone that stimulates the egg to mature in the ovaries, and the ovaries to produce hormones, including oestrogen
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Pituitary gland
Small gland in the brain which produces a range of hormones controlling body function
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Oestrogen
Female sex hormone which stimulates the lining of the womb to build up in preparation for a pregnancy
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Ovary
Female sex organ which contains the eggs and produces sex hormones during the menstrual cycle
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Contraceptice pill
A pill containing female sex hormones which is used to prevent conception
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Oral contraceptive
Hormone contraceptive that is taken by mouth
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Progesterone
Female sex hormone used in the contraceptive pill
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Internal environment
The conditions inside the body
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Kindney
Organ which filters the blood and removes urea, excess salts and water
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Urine
The liquid product formed by the breakdown of excess amino acids in the liver
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Enzyme
Protein molecule which acts as a biological catalyst. It changes the rate of chemical reactions without being effected itself by the reaction
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Pancreas
An organ that produces the hormone insulin and many digestive enzymes
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Phototropism
The rosponse of a plant to light, controlled by auxin
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Gravitropism
The response of a plant to the force of gravity, controlled by auxin
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Auxin
A plant hormone that controls the responses of plants to light (phototropism) and to gravity (gravitropism)
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Placebo
A substance used in clinical trials which does not contain any drug at all
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Double-blind trial
A drug trail in which neither the patient nor the doctor knows if the patient is recieving the new drug or the placebo
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Thalidomide
A drug that causes deformities in the fetus when given to pregnant women to prevent morning sickness
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Statin
Drug which lowers the body cholesteral levels and improves the balance of HDLs and LDLs
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Depression
A mental illness that involves feeling of great sadness that interfere with everyday life
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Drug
A chemical which causes changes in the body. Medical drugs cure disease or relieve symptoms. Recreational drugs alter the state of your mind and/or body
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Withdrawal symptom
The symptom experienced by a drug addict when they do not get the drug to which theu are addicted
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Steroid
Drug that is used illegally by some athletes to build muscles and improve performance
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Adaptation
Special feature that makes an organism particularly well suited to the environment where it lives
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Herbivore
Animal that feeds on plants
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Carnivore
Animal that eats other animals
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Extremophile
Organism which lives in environments that are very extreme, e.g. very high or very low temperatures, high salt levels or high pressures
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Denature
Change the shape of an enzyme so that it can no longer speed up a reaction
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Stomata
Openings in the leaves of plants (particularly the underside) which allows gases to entre and leave the leaf. They are opened and closed by the guard cells
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Competetion
The pocess by which living organisms compete with eachother for limited resources such as food, light and reproductive partners
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Territory
An area where an animal lives and feels, which it may mark out or defend against other animals
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Ovipositor
A pointed tube found in many female insects which is used to lay eggs
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Indicator species
Lichens or insects that are particularly sensitive to pollution and so can be used to indicate changes in the environment pollution levels
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Biomass
Biological material from living or recently living organisms
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Pyramid of biomass
A model of the mass of biological material in the organisms at each level of the food chain
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Solar (light) energy
Energy from the Sun or other light source
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Urea
The waste product formed by the breakdown of excess amino acids in the liver
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Detritus feeder/decomposer
Microorganism that breaks down waste products and dead bodies
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Sewage treatement plant
A site where human waste is broken down using microorganisms
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Compost heap
A site where garden rubbish and kitchen waste are decomposed by microorganisms
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Carbon cycle
The cycling of carbon through the living and non-living world
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Combustion
The process of burning
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Organic waste
Waste material from living organisms, e.g. garden waste
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Chromosome
Thread-like structure carrying the genetic information found in the nucleas of a cell
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Asexual reproduction
Reproduction that involves only one individual with no fusing of gametes to produce the offspring. The offspring are identical to the parent organism
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Sexual reproduction
Reproduction which involves the joinging (fusion) of the male and female gametes producing genetic variety in the offspring
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Tissue culture
Using small groups of cells from a plant to make a new plant
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Genetic modification/engineering
A technique for changing the genetic information of a cell
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Adult cell cloning
Process in which the nucleus of an adult cell of one animal is fused with an empty egg from another animal. The embryo which results is placed inside the uterus of a third animal to develope
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Evolution
The process of slow change in living organisms over long periods of time as those best adapted to survive breed successfully
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Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
French biologist who developed the theory of evolution based on the inheritance of acquired characteristics
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Charles Darwin
The Victorian scientist who developed the theory of evolution by a process of natural selection
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Mutation
A change in the genetic material of an organism
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Natural clasification system
Classification system based on the similariities between different living organisms
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Kingdom
The highest group in the classification system e.g. animal, plants
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Species
A group of organisms with many features in common which can breed successfully producing fertile offspring
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Evolutionary tree
Model of the evolutionary relationships between different organisms based on their appearance, and increasingly, on DNA evidence
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Evolutionary relationships
Model of the relationships between organisms, often based on DNA evidence, which suggests how long ago they evolved away from eachother and how closely related they are in evolutionary terms
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The rate at which the reactions in our body take place, particularly cellular respiration

Back

Metabolic rate

Card 3

Front

Passed on from parents to their offspring through genes

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The quantity of matter in an object; measure of the difficulty of changing the motion of an object (in kilograms, kg)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A person is overweight if their body carries excess fat and their BMI is between 25 and 30

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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