Biology 3 for the whole of AQA B3

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What is osmosis?
The movement of water from a lower concentrated solution through a permeable membrane to a concentrated solution.
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Why do we use sports drinks?
To replace the sugar, ions and salt lost while exercising and sweating.
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What happens if we do not replace the ions and water lost from excercise?
Our cells don't work as well.
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What is active transport?
When diffusion happens in the opposite direction. The solution will move from a lower concentrated liquid to a more concentrate liquid using energy from respiration.
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The effectiveness of an exchange surface is increased by what 4 things?
Having a large surface area. Being thin to provide a short diffusion path. (in animals) Having an efficient blood supply and in animals, being ventilated for gaseous exchange.
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What increases the surface area in the lungs?
The alveoli.
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What increases the surface area in the small intestine?
Villi.
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What are the lungs protected with and how are they seperated from the lower body?
Ribcage and diaphram.
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How does the breathing system work?
Air goes into the body and the oxygen diffuses though the blood stream and the carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood stream and into the air.
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Why does the ribcage move up and the diaphram becomes flatter when we breath in?
It decreases the pressure so more air is forced in.
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Why does the ribcage move down and the diaphram becomes bigger again?
To increase the pressure so it can force air out.
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How is carbon dioxide and water and mineral ions absorbed by plants?
Carbon dioxide enters leaves by diffusion. Water and mineral ions are absorbed by roots - this is active transport.
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How is the surface area of the roots increased?
By root hairs.
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How is the surface area of the leaves increased?
They are flatter so this is a bigger surface area.
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What does the stomata do in plants?
They are small holes in the leaves that get carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and remove oxygen produced in photosynthesis.
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Where is the main place plants loose water?
In their leaves through the stomata.
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What is the size of the stomata controlled by?
Guard cells.
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What are the 4 main chambers of the heart?
Right ventricle and atria. Left ventricle and atria.
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What does the atria do?
It forces blood into the ventricles.
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What do the ventricles do?
They force blood out of the heart.
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What makes sure the blood is travelling the same way in the heart?
Valves.
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How does the blood flow from the heart to the organs.
Through ateries and through veins.
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Describe what arteries look like
Thick walls containing muscle and elastic fibres.
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Describe what veins look like.
Thinner walls that have valves to prevent back-flows of blood.
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What side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood around the body?
The right side.
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Why do we use stents?
They open up arteries if they begin to become narrow. This stops heart attacks.
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Describe capillaries
They make the blood flow through their very narrow and thin walled tubes. They are tiny!
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Artieries, Capillaries and veins all join up, how?
The arteries branch into capillaries. These capillaries eventually join up to form veins.
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What is carried in the plasma?
Red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. it also carries carbon dioxide from the organs to the longs, soluble products of digestion and urea from the liver to the kidneys.
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Red blood cells carry what?
Oxygen from the lungs to the organs.
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Do red blood cells have a nucleus?
No. This is because they have more room for haemoglobin and oxygen.
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What red pigment is in red blood cells?
Haemoglobin.
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What happens to haemoglobin in the lungs?
It mixes with oxygen to produce oxyhaemoglobin.
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Do white blood cells have a nucleus?
Yes.
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What do platelets do?
Clot blood at wounds.
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How does water move from the root upwards to the leaves.?
Transpiration.
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What does the xylem tissue transport?
Water and mineral ions.
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What does the phloem tissue carry?
Dissolved sugars and food.
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What is urea?
Produced in the liver by the breakdown of amino acids and removed by the kidneys in urine.
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Describe the process of how a healthy kidney produces urine.
First filtering the blood, reabsorbing the sugar, reabsorbing the dissolved irons, reabsorbing water and then release the urea, excess ions and water.
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How can people who are affected by kidney failure treated?
Kidney dialysis machines or a kidney transplant.
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What does dialysis in kidneys actually do?
It restores the concentrations of dissolved substances in the blood to normal levels and has to be done at regular intervals.
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Describe dialysis of the kidneys.
A persons blood flows between partially permable membranes. The dialysis fluid has the same concerntration of useful substances as the blood. This means the right amount of glucose and useful ions are not lost.
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How does a kidney transplant help?
A diseased kidney is replaced with a healthy one. It could be rejected if precautions aren't taken.
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How do we prevent the rejection of transplanted kidneys?
The new kidney is a similar tissue type to the person. Drugs are used to suppress the immune systemn
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What does sweating do?
Keeps body cool. More water is lost when it is hot.
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How is the body temperature controlled?
By the thermoregulatory centre in the brain.
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What happens if the core body temperature is too high?
Blood vessels supplying the skin capillaries dilate so more blood can come through to the surface. Sweat glands release more sweat.
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What happens if the core body temperature is too low?
Blood vessels supplying the skin capillaries constrict to reduce the flow of blood. Muscles contract as they need respiration to contract so this releases heat for the body.
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How is the blood glucose level monitored?
By the pancreas. The pancreas produces insulin which allows glucose to move from the blood into cells.
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Where is glucagon produces and what does it do?
Pancreas and it is produced when blood glucose levels fall. Glucogen then converts into glucose to be released into the blood.
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What is type 1 diabetes and what does it do?
It affects someones blood glucose concerntration. This is because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin.
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How can we control type 1 diabetes?
Diet, excercise and injecting insulin.
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How do humans limit the amount of space avaliable?
Building, quarring, farming and dumping waste.
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Large scale deforestation in tropical areas for timber and agriculture has done what for the environment?
Increased the amount of co2 - burning and microorganisms decomposing wood. Reduced the rate at which co2 is locked up as it would be locked up as wood but we are damaging that process.
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Deforestation leads to what?
Reduction in biodiversity.
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destroying peat bogs do what?
Adds more co2 to the atmosphere.
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What are bogs?
Areas of land that are acidic and waterlogged.
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What happens to plants that live in bogs?
They don't fully decay when they die as there isn't enough oxygen. They all build up once they die to form peat. The c02 is stored in peat instead of being released.
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Why should we buy peat free compost?
When peat bogs are drained, the peat starts to decompose so alot of co2 is released. If we don't use it, less co2 is used.
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Levels or co2 and methane in the atmosphere contribute to what?
Global warming.
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An increase in the Earth's temperature can cause what affects?
Big changes in the earth's climate, rise in sea level, reduce biodiversity, changes in migration patters and change in distribution of species.
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How can bio fuels be made?
Natural products by fermentation.
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What things can we do to protect the fish?
Smaller nets so it only catches what we actually want to catch, fish in the areas with lots in, no over fishing.
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Why do we use fusarium?
Produces mycoprotien for vegetarians. It grows on glucose syrup in aerobic conditions.
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Card 2

Front

Why do we use sports drinks?

Back

To replace the sugar, ions and salt lost while exercising and sweating.

Card 3

Front

What happens if we do not replace the ions and water lost from excercise?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is active transport?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

The effectiveness of an exchange surface is increased by what 4 things?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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