AQA Biology Unit 1

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Which diet factors release energy?
Carbohydrates, proteins and fats
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Without which two diet factors will a person develop a deficiency disease?
Vitamins and minerals
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Which type of tissue transfers more energy? Muscle or fat?
Muscle
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Generally, why do men have lower metabolic rates?
Because they have a lower fat to muscle ratio
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What are the two jobs that body fat has?
It stores energy and cushions your internal organs
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Which specific disease does long-term obesity cause?
Type-2 diabetes
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What is 'good cholesterol' for?
Cell membranes and to make vital substances
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What is a pathogen?
A microorganism that causes disease
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What do bacteria and viruses do when they enter the body?
Rapidly reproduce
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What did Ignaz Semmelweis do?
He discovered the importance of cleanliness in hospitals
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Why did no one believe Semmelweis?
Because no one had ever seen the bugs that he talks about
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What do white blood cells produce to target a bacteria's antigens?
Antibodies
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Who discovered penicillin and when?
Fleming, 1928
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Why are viruses do hard to kill?
Because they take over the body's cells and treatment could damage the body as well as the virus
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At what temperature are bacteria cultures incubated at?
25 degrees in schools and universities, 35 in industry
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What culture medium is used when growing bacteria?
Agar jelly
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What is the name for a disease that spreads within a country?
An epidemic
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Name a famous superbug.
MRSA
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How does antibiotic resistance occur?
Pathogens reproduce inside the body, some are randomly mutated. The antibiotic may not kill the mutated one(s), which reproduce(s), causing a whole population of resistant bacteria to exist
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What sort of shape do viruses have?
Regular
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Why didn't people believe Semmelweis?
Because no one had ever seen what was causing this disease
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What do antibiotics do? What do they not work on?
They work by killing the bacteria that causes disease without harming your own cells. They do not work with viruses because viruses are inside your body's cells.
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What are 5 receptors in the human body?
The sense organs: Eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin
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What is the order of transmission in a normal response?
Receptor, sensory neuron, CNS, motor neuron, effector
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What are the two types of effector organs?
Muscles and glands
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How do muscles and glands respond to stimuli?
Muscles respond by contracting and glands respond by secreting chemicals
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What are the nose and tongue sensitive to?
Chemicals
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What 4 things is the skin sensitive to?
Pressure, temperature, touch and pain
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What is the order of transmission for a reflex action?
Receptor detects stimuli, sensory neuron carried impulse from receptor to CNS, the relay neuron then transfers the signal to the motor neuron. Finally the motor neuron transmits the impulse to the effector which reacts to the stimuli
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What is a synapse?
The gap between neurons where chemicals are diffused across the gap, carrying the impulse
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What does FSH do and where is it made?
It causes the egg to mature and oestrogen to be produced. It's made in the pituitary gland in the brain
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What does LH do and where is it made?
It stimulates the release of an egg from the ovaries and into the womb. It's made in the pituitary gland
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What does oestrogen do and where is it made?
It inhibits the production of FSH, stimulates the production of LH and casues the womb lining to develop (ready to receive the fertilised egg). It's made in the ovaries
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What does the contraceptive pill contain? What does it sometimes contain?
It contains oestrogen and progesterone abut sometimes only contains progesterone
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What is special about progesterone-only contraceptive pill?
It has fewer side-effects
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Why does the contraceptive pill work?
Because it inhibits the production of FSH so eggs are not matured
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What is prescribed if a woman cannot produce mature eggs?
FSH and LH so ovulation occurs
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What are carbohydrates used for?
Releasing energy
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What are fats used for?
To keep warm and release energy
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What are proteins used for?
Growth, cell repair and cell replacement
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What are fibres used for?
To keep everything moving smoothly in the digestive system
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What are vitamins and minerals used for?
To keep you skin,bones,blood and everything else (generally) healthy
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What us your metabolism?
The rate at which chemical reactions occur in your body
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What causes obesity?
When consumes more energy than they use
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What causes deficiency diseases?
A lack of vitamins or minerals
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What does too much saturated fat do to you?
Increases your blood cholesterol levels
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What are the 4 internal conditions that your body needs to keep constant?
Temperature, blood sugar levels, ion content and water content
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How does water leave our body?
Through our breath an sweat
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How is excess water lost?
In the urine
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How are ions lost?
Sweat and urine
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Why does our internal body temperature need to be constant?
So that the enzyme sin our body work properly
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Where are our glucose levels controlled?
The pancreas
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What is sugar in the blood used as?
An energy source
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How does auxin react to gravity?
Goes with it
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How does auxin react to light?
It gathers away from light
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How does auxin react to moisture?
It gathers towards it
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What can plant hormones be used as?
Weed killers or to stimulate root growth
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What does auxin do in the roots?
Inhibits growth
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What does auxin do in the stem?
Encourages growth
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What are hormones put on to stimulate root growth?
The bottom end of a ctting
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What happens if plant hormones are used incorrectly?
They can damage the plant or it's environment (e.g. if a weedkiller kills surrounding plants)
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What is the order of new drug testing?
Human cells, animals, healthy human, patients
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What is a double-blind trial?
A trial where neither the doctor nor the patient knows who has the placebo and who has the real drug
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What is a placebo?
A substance that has the same taste, appearance and texture as the real drug but does not contain the drug
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What was thalidomide originally developed as, why was it discontinued and what is the exception to the latter ?
Originally used as morning sickness medication for pregnant women but stopped because it caused limb deformities in the children of the mothers who took it. It is now only used as leprosy medication
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What do statins do?
They lower blood cholesterol
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What do some people use instead of prescribed medication?
Herbs and spices
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What are recreational drugs?
Drugs used for pleasure
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What are two examples of illegal and addictive drugs?
Heroin and cocaine
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What happens when you stop taking addictive drugs?
You experience withdrawal symptoms
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What is cannabis often referred to as? (two words)
A gateway drug
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What doe recreational drugs affect?
The brain and nervous system
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Why are recreational drugs so easy to become addicted to?
Because they affect your nervous system
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What are three LEGAL and recreational drugs?
Alcohol, caffine and nicotine
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What disease does smoking lead to?
Lung cancer
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What are steroids used for?
To build muscle mass (and increase stamina)
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Why are performance-enhancing drugs unfair?
Because they're expensive and gives an unfair advantage to those who can afford them
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What can using performance-enhancing drugs lead to?
Permanent damage (to the body) and sometimes even death
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What do plans need to live?
Light, carbon dioxide, water, oxygen and nutrients (e.g. mineral ions from the soil)
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What do animals need to survive?
Food, water and oxygen
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What do microorganisms need to survive?
It depends; some are like animals but others are more like plants
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What are plants adapted to do?
Obtain light and other materials so that they can effectively make food through photosynthesis
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What do temperature do most organisms live under? Why?
40 degrees, so that they enzymes can work properly
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What is an extremophile?
An organism that had adapted to survive in conditions where enzymes wouldn't usually work
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How are animals who live in the Arctic adapted?
Thick fur,blubber (fat layer), low SA:Volume ratio and small ears
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Why do arctic animal shave a low surface area to volume ratio?
So that they conserve more heat as less is lost
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How is water lost through the leaves of a plant?
Through the stomata (holes). This is called transpiration
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If a plant lives in an environment where water is scarce, what adaption(s) may it have to conserve water?
Waxy leaves, small leaves, swollen stem
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How are plants adapted to ward off predators?
They have thorns, poisons, and bright warning colours
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What four things are animals in competition for?
Food, mates, space (territory), and water
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What four things are plants in competition for?
Water, light, space and nutrients
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What are five non-living factors that demonstrate environmental change?
Average rainfall, temperature, temperature light and pH
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What are five living factors that demonstrate environmental change?
New predators, new disease, new plants, new food, new habitats
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How can air pollution be measured (living factor)?
Using lichen
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What are lichen sensitive to and what happens to them?
Air pollution (particularly sulfur dioxide). They die when the air is too polluted
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What are freshwater invertebrates useful for?
Recognising the level of water pollution. The more diverse the population of freshwater invertebrates are, the cleaner the water is
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What man-made equipment can be used to measure different types of environmental change (and what type of environmental change does it measure)?
Rain gauges (rainfall), thermometers (temperatures), data loggers (deoends what it's connected to... temperature, pH, oxyegn levels etc.)
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What are four ways in which energy is lost through a food chain?
Movement, in respiration, in faeces/urine, to keep the body at a constant temperature,
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Where can humans recycle biological waste?
Compost heaps and sewage treatment plants
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How is carbon released into the environment?
Respiration, dead plants and animals and combustion
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How is carbon dioxide removed from the environment?
Photosynthesis
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What are two example of organic waste (produced by humans)?
Kitchen waste and garden waste
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Which conditions aid the rate of decay?
Moisture, oxygen supply and warm (high temperature)
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What is another word for 'sex cell'?
Gamete
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What does a nucleus contain?
Chromosomes
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How many sets of chromosomes are inside a gamete?
1
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How many sets of chromosomes are a normal body cell?
2
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What does asexual reproduction involve?
One parent splits it's chromosomes, then forms two new cells which replicate the DNA so that each new cell has a full set of chromosomes
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What does asexual reproduction produce?
Two identical cells
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What does sexual reproduction involve?
The fusion of two gametes
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How many chromosomes are in one set?
23
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How many chromosomes do normal cells contain?
46
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How many chromosomes to gametes contain?
23
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In animals, what are the sex cells?
Sperm and egg
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What does the random mixing of genes lead to?
Variation
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What does variation lead to?
Survival of a species
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How are plants cloned via. cuttings?
Cuttings are taken from a plant with desirable characteristics, rooting powder is added, the plants are planted and maintained (given ideal conditions to grow) so that they grow into clones of th eparent plant
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How does tissue culturing work?
Cells of a plant are put into a growth medium with hormones and they grow into clones of the parent plant
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What are some advantages of cloning using cuttings?
The clones are produced quickly and cheaply
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What are some advantages of cloning using tissue cultures?
The clones are made quickly, needing little space and all year round
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What happens during embryo transplants?
Sperm and egg cells are taken and artificially combined (the sperm fertilises the egg cell). The embryo that develops is then split and put into surrogates. The offspring are all genetically identical to one another
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What happens during adult cell cloning?
The genetic material is removed from an unfertilised egg and discarded. The genetcmaterial from an adult body cell is removed and then fused with the egg cell (with the help of a mild electric shock). The new embryo is then implanted into a surrogate
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What are three possible advantages to cloning?
Can save endangered species, produces lots of 'ideal' offspring and leads to greater understanding of the development of the embryo
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What are four possible disadvantages to cloning?
Reduces the gene pool (so a whole population can be wiped out by a disease because there are no resistant alleles), cloned animals may not be as healthy and sometimes cloning is unsuccessful (resulting in disabilities)
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How are enzymes used in genetic engineering?
They cut out the desirable gene and then 'glue' it into external DNA which is then grown and duplicated
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What are some purposes of GM crops?
To make them resistant to viruses, insects or herbicides
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What are two advantages of genetic engineering?
Can help treat disease and more efficient food production
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What is a disadvantage of genetic engineering?
Can create unplanned problems which are then passed on to future generations
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What are two advantages of GM crops?
They increase the yield of crops and can be engineered to contain specific nutrients (which prevents certain diseases)
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What are three disadvantages of GM crops?
They reduce biodiversity (population of insects and other plants living around the crops), not everyone thinks that they are safe and the transplanted genes may get out into the natural environment
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What is the theory of evolution?
That every organism is distantly related to (and evolved from) one ancestor that existed 3 billion years ago
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Who came up with the idea of natural selection?
Charles Darwin
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What was Lamarck's idea?
That if an organismused a characteristic a lot, then it would develop more over time before being passed onto the offspring
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Why didn't people agree with Darwin?
Religious beliefs, he couldn't give a good explanation because the genes and mutations were not yet discovered and he didn't have enough evidence
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What is a theory?
An accepted hypothesis
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What was Lamarck's theory?
The inheritance of acquired chracteristics
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What was Darwin's theory?
Natural selection
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Why do organisms show variation?
Because of differences in genes
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What causes an organism to be better adapted to it's environment than say, it's parents?
A mutation that causes a beneficial characteristic
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What is the grouping of organisms called?
Classification
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What is the natural classification system?
The system used to group organisms according to their similarities and differences
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What is the smallest group in the classification system?
Species
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What are evolutionary trees?
Models that can be drawn to show the similarities and differences between organisms
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What do ecological relationships tell us?
How species have evolved together in an environment
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What is adaption?
A special feature of an organism that is suited to the place that the organism lives
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What is adult cell cloning?
The process in which the nucleus of an adult cell is fused with an empty egg from another animal. The embryo produced us then put inside a third animal (surrogate).
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What is agar?
Nutrient jelly on which many microorganisms are cultured
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What is an allele?
A version of a particular gene
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Card 2

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Without which two diet factors will a person develop a deficiency disease?

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Vitamins and minerals

Card 3

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Which type of tissue transfers more energy? Muscle or fat?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Generally, why do men have lower metabolic rates?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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What are the two jobs that body fat has?

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