AQA Biology Unit 2

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What happens during the development of a multicellular organism?
Cells differentiate
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Which 3 types of tissue are in an animal?
Muscle, glandular and epithelial
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What does muscle tissue do?
Contracts to bring about movement
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What does glandular tissue do?
Produces and secretes substances such as hormones or enzymes
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What does epithelial tissue do?
Covers some part of the body
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What 3 types of tissue do plants have?
Epidermal, mesophyll, xylem and phloem
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What does epidermal tissue do?
Covers some parts of the plant
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What does mesophyll tissue do?
Photosynthesises
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What do xylem and phloem do?
Transports substances around the plant
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What does muscular tissue in the stomach do?
Contracts do churn stomach contents
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What does glandular tissue do in the stomach?
Produces digestive juices
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What does the epithelial tissue in the stomach do?
Coats the inside and outside of the stomach
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What do insoluble molecules in food need to be converted into? Why?
Soluble molecules so hat they can be absorbed into your blood
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What does the liver do?
Produces bile
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What happens in the small intestine?
The absorption of soluble food molecules
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What happens in the large intestine?
The absorption of water from insoluble food
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What is the by-product of photosynthesis?
Oxygen
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What is the iodine test for?
Starch
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How do you know if starch has been made (using the iodine test)?
Green patches will go blue/black
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What are the limiting factors of photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide, water, light, temperature
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Why is temperature a limiting factor of photosynthesis?
Because if the temperature is too high or too low then enzymes won't work properly (as they have become denatured)
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On a sunny day,how can light be limited to plants?
They may be in the shade e.g. if there are large (or not so large) trees above them
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What are 5 uses of soluble glucose?
Converted into starch for storage, used for respiration, converted into fats and oils for storage,, used to produce cellulose (which strengthens cell walls) or used to produce proteims
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What do plants and algal cells use mineral ions for?
To produce proteins
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What can plant growers add to soil to make sure that their plants grow? Why?
Nitrate ions because they allow plants to make the proteins needed for growth
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What are 6 physical factors that affect the distribution of organisms?
Temperature, water, light, carbon dioxide, nutrients and oxygen
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What are proteins?
Long chains of amino acids
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What are 4 things that proteins can be?
Catalysts, antibodies, hormones and structural components of tissues (such as muscle)
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What are chemical reactions in cells controlled by?
Enzymes
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What is the 'active site'of an enzyme?
The edge (with a particular shape) that a substrate can fit into
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What does the nucleus do?
It contains the genetic material of the cell and controls its activities
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What does the cytoplasm do?
Its the place where most chemical reactions happen, and it contains enzymes that controls these reactions
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What does the cell membrane do?
Holds the cell togather and controls what goes in and out (it's a semi-oermeable membrane)
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What does the mitochondria do?
Where most of the reactions for photosynthesis happen (which releases energy)
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What do the ribosomes do?
They protein-synthesise
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What does a cell wall do?
It's made of cellulose and supports and strengthesn the cell
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What does the permanent valcuole do?
They store nutrients in the from of cell sap (generally just a weak solution of sugars and salts)
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What do the chloroplasts do?
They photosynthesise and contain a greenpigment called chlorophyll
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What do yeast cells contain?
Nucleus, cytoplasm, cell wall and cell membrane
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What doa bacterial cell contain?
Cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall and free genetic material (no nucleus)
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How are the chloroplasts in a palisade leaf cell adapted? What for?
There are many of them, mostly at the top of the cell. This means that loads of light energy can be absorbed for photosynthesis
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How is the shape/size of a palisade leaf cell adapted? Why?
They're tall so a large surface area is exposed to absorb CO2. They're also thin so that lots can be packed near the top of the leaf
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How is a guard cells shape good for it's function?
They have a kidney shape which allows them to open and close the stomata
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How are guard cells adapted when there's lots of water inside the leaf?
They absorb the water, becoming tugid which opens the stomata so that photosyntheis can occur
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How are guard cells adapted when there's not that much water insie the leaf?
They become flacid making the stomata close which means that water can be conserved inside the leaf
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Why do the guard cells have thin outer walls and thick inner walls?
So that they can open and close stomata properly
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Why are guard cells sensitive to light?
So that they 'know' to close during the night so that they don'tlose water without photosynthesising
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How are red blood cells adapted to absorb oxygen (3)?
They have no nucleus (more space for hemoglobin), they have lots on heamoglobin and they have a concave shape (larger exchange surface)
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What are two specialised features of an egg cell?
It contains huge food reserves for the growing embryo and is able to instantly change it's cell membrane when it's fused with a sperm cell(avoids the incorrect amount of DNA)
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What are four specialised features of a sperm cell?
Long tail (helps swim), streamlined head (also helps swim), lots of mitochindria (provides energy for swimming), and it's head contains enzymes to digest through the egg's membrane
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What differentiation?
The process by which cells become specialised
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When does differentiation occur?
During the development of a multicellular organism
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What is a tissue?
Agroup of cells that work together to carry out a specific function
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What does muscular tissue do?
Contracts to bring about movement
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WHat does glandular tissue do?
Makes and secretes chemicals such as enzymes and hormones
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What does epithelial tissue do?
Covers some parts of the body
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What is an organ?
A group of different tissues that work together to perform a specific function
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What does muscular tissue in the stomach do?
Moves the stomach wall to churn food
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What does glandular tissue in the stomach do?
Makes digestive juices
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What does epithelial tissue do in the stomach?
Covers the outside and inside of the stomach
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What is an organ system?
A group of organs that worktogether to perform a specific function
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What do the glands do in the digestive system do? What are two examples?
Produce digestive juices. Pancreas and salivary glands
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What is mesophyll tissue for in a plant?
It's where most of the photosynthesis happens
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What is epidermal tissue for in a plant?
It cover the whole of the plant
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What are xylem and phloem for in a plant?
They transport substances around the plant44
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Card 2

Front

Which 3 types of tissue are in an animal?

Back

Muscle, glandular and epithelial

Card 3

Front

What does muscle tissue do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does glandular tissue do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does epithelial tissue do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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