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All animals and plants are made of cells. Animal cells and plant cells have features
in common, such as a nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria and
ribosomes. Plant cells also have a cell wall, and often have chloroplasts and a
permanent vacuole. Note that cells may be specialised to…

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Generalised animal and plant cell

Specialised cells
Cells may be specialised for a particular function. Their structure will allow them to carry
this function out. Here are some examples:

Examples of the functions of cells

Cell Function Adaption

Absorbs light Packed with chloroplasts. Regular shaped,
energy for closely packed cells…

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Dissolved substances have to pass through the cell membrane to get into or out of a cell.
Diffusion is one of the processes that allows this to happen.
Diffusion occurs when particles spread. They move from a region where they are in high
concentration to a region where they…

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Green plants absorb light energy using chlorophyll in their leaves. They use it to
react carbon dioxide with water to make a sugar called glucose. The glucose is
used in respiration, or converted into starch and stored. Oxygen is produced as a

This process is called photosynthesis. Temperature,…

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Plants absorb water through their roots, and carbon dioxide through their leaves. Some
glucose is used for respiration, while some is converted into insolublestarch for storage.
The stored starch can later be turned back into glucose and used in respiration. Oxygen is
released as a by-product of photosynthesis.

Factors limiting…

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If it gets too cold, the rate of photosynthesis will decrease. Plants cannot
photosynthesise if it gets too hot.

If you plot the rate of photosynthesis against the levels of these three limiting factors,
you get graphs like the ones above.

In practice, any one of these factors could…

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The tomato plant on the left is healthy, the one on the right is growing in conditions where mineral ions
are deficient


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