Behavioural Genetics

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  • Created by: molica
  • Created on: 31-03-15 14:15
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acaid- Double stranded molecules held together by weak bonds between base pairs of nucleotides (A-T, C-G)
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Genes
2% codes for proteins, More than 99% DNA sequence identical for everybody, 1% variation
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SNP
Single nucleotide polymorphisms- Accounts for 90% of variation- Variations of base pairs at a single loci
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Linkage studies
Tracking genes in families and pinpointing those in affected individuals
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Association Studies
Looking for genes which are different in affected and unaffected individuals
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Knocking Out
Knocking out equivalent genes in mice
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Problems with Association Study design
Large sample sizes needed, A large array of genetic of DNA markers, Expensive, Genes are not all expressed at the same time, Differences in frequency of alleles, Effect of any one allele is small
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QTL
Quantitative Trait Locus- Many genes have a small effect on a trait or behaviour
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Microarrays
Genome arranged in a grid pattern for genetic testing. If a strand of DNA sticks to complementary strand of RNA, this means strands complement each other. If they do not stick then this means there are variations within the DNA sequence
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Polymorphisms
DNA sequence variations which are common within a population
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Pleiotropy
A gene effects many traits
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Polygenicity
Many genes affect a trait
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Gene expression
Process by which the DNA sequence is converted into functional protein structures
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Transcriptome
Set of all mRNA molecules being produced in a cell or set of cells
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Epigenome
'Above genetics' Determines how much of the mRNA is made and where. Does not change the DNA of a cell.
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Cell differentiation
Allowing cells to have different characteristics despite having the same genetic material
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Hyper methylation
Increased methylation
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Hypo methylation
Decreased methylation (agouti mice example)
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Transcription
Individual genes are copied into RNA molecules
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1. Accessing the genome
Processes influencing the structure of the chromatin and positioning of the nucleose to ensure access to active genes are easy
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2. Transcription initiation complex
Comprising the set of proteins together that work together to copy genes in RNA
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3. Synthesis of RNA
Gene is transcribed into an RNA copy
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4. Processing of RNA
A series of alterations are made to the RNA sequence
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5.RNA Degradation
Getting rid of unwanted RNA: plays a role in determining the make up of transcriptome
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6.Protein synthesis
Synthesis of a protein by translation of an RNA molecule
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7.Protein folding and processing
Folding into 3d shape,Processing by adding or removing some aspects of the protein
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5- Methylcytosine
Cytosine with methyl group attached to carbon 5
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Chromatin
Complex form of DNA and proteins that make up chromosomes
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

2% codes for proteins, More than 99% DNA sequence identical for everybody, 1% variation

Back

Genes

Card 3

Front

Single nucleotide polymorphisms- Accounts for 90% of variation- Variations of base pairs at a single loci

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Tracking genes in families and pinpointing those in affected individuals

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Looking for genes which are different in affected and unaffected individuals

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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