B3 - Proteins and Mutations

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What are proteins made of?
Long chains of amino acids joined together
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What are four examples of functions of protein?
-Structural proteins used to build cells and tissues e.g. collagen -Hormones which carry messages e.g. insulin controls blood sugar levels -Carrier proteins e.g. haemoglobin -Enzymes
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What do proteins have their own number and sequences of? What does this determine?
Amino acids that determine different shapes or functions
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What are enzymes?
Biological catalysts which can control the activity of the cell
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What chemical reactions do they catalyse?
Respiration, photosynthesis and protein synthesis of living cells
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What is the active site?
The part of the enzyme of which the substrate fits into
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What is the lock and key mechanism?
When the substrate fits into the enzyme just like a key and lock. This explains why an enzyme can only work on a particular substrate.
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What is the optimum?
The right pH and temperature for an enzyme
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What happens to the enzymes at low temperatures?
The molecules move more slowly, this means the enzyme and substrate are less likely to collide, slowing down the reaction.
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What happens to the enzymes at very high or low pH values and high temperatures?
The active sit changes shape. This is called denaturing, This means the substrate will not fit.
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How do you work out the temperature coefficient?
Q^10 = rate at higher temperature / rate at lower temperature
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What are gene mutations?
Permanent alterations in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene. This changes the order of the four bases.
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How do people get mutations?
Spontaneously, but can occur more often by radiation or chemicals
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What can mutations lead to?
The production of different proteins
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What is often about having mutations?
Harm but may have no effect
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What is rare about having mutations?
Advantages
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True or false: every cell in the body have the same genes.
TRUE
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This does not mean that all the same proteins are made. Why is this? What does it allow?
Different genes are switched on and off in different cells. This allows different cells to perform different functions.
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What do gene mutations alter or prevent?
the production of the protein that is normally made, because they change the base code of DNA, and so change the order of the amino acids in the protein.
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Card 2

Front

What are four examples of functions of protein?

Back

-Structural proteins used to build cells and tissues e.g. collagen -Hormones which carry messages e.g. insulin controls blood sugar levels -Carrier proteins e.g. haemoglobin -Enzymes

Card 3

Front

What do proteins have their own number and sequences of? What does this determine?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are enzymes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What chemical reactions do they catalyse?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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