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Biology



Cells

Cytoplasm: Where chemical reaction take place
Cell Membrane: Allows movement into and out of cell
Nucleus: Contains the genetic information and controls what the cell does
Mitochondria: Respiration takes place inside, supplying energy for the cell. Cells that need a
lot of energy (sperm cells, muscle cells and…

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Code needed to produce a protein is carried from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in
the cytoplasm by a molecule called mRNA.
DNA controls cell function by controlling the production of proteins, some of which are
enzymes

Proteins and Mutation

Proteins

Made of long chains of amino…

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These changes can be spontaneous but the rate can be increased by environmental factors
such as radiation or chemicals.
Most mutations are harmful although occasionally a beneficial mutation occurs
Mutations may lead to a production of different proteins
Mutations change the base sequences of DNA
It alters the shape and…

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