Biology B3 - Proteins and mutations

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  • Proteins are made from long chains of different amino acids.
  •  Enzymes are a type of protein that speeds up the chemical reactions inside cells. 
  • Each type of enzyme does a specific job. 
  • Enzymes work best at optimum temperatures and pH values. 
  • Mutations can affect the ability of a protein to work properly.
  • Proteins are polymers


  • Enzymes are biological catalysts – protein molecules that speed up chemical reactions.
  • The shape of an enzyme determines how it works.
  •  If an active site is changed enough in a protein substate's won't be able to fit in them anymore, at that point you would call the protein 'denatured'. Denaturing can happen at high temperatures and at extreme pH values.
  •  Enzymes have active sites that substrate molecules (the substances involved in the chemical reaction) fit into when a reaction happens.
  • he mechanism involved is called the 'lock and key' mechanism.
  • Enzymes work best at particular temperatures


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