Proteins and mutations 

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  • Proteins and mutations
    • Grouping organisms
      • Proteins have different functions.
        • Structural proteins used to build cells and tissues, e.g. collagen
        • Hormones, carry messages to control a reaction, e.g. insulin controls blood sugar levels
        • Carrier proteins, e.g. haemoglobin carries oxygen
        • Enzymes
      • Each proteins has its own umber and order of amino acids.
        • This makes each type of protein molecule a different shape and has different functions
    • Enzymes
      • They speed up reaction in body - Biological catalysts
      • They catalyse chemical reactions in respiration, photo-synthesis and protein synthesis of living cells
      • Substance molecule fits into active site of enzyme.
        • This is why enzymes are described as working accordingly to the "lock and key theory"
        • This is why each enzyme can only work on a particular substance. This is called specificity
        • Enzymes work best at particular temperature and pH, any changes will slow down the reaction
          • At low temperature molecules are moving slowly meaning they are less likely to collide
          • At high temperatures or very high and low pH value the enzyme active site changes shape, denaturing meaning it cannot react quickly
    • Mutations
      • Mutations can occur suddenly or by radiation or by chemicals.
      • Mutations may lead to production of different proteins, they are often harmful but have no effect, might be an advantage
      • Different genes are switched off in different cells, the cells can perform different functions
      • Gene mutation alter/prevent production of protein, they change base code of DNA, change order of amino acids.

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