AS Human Geography

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Birth rate:
The number of live births per 1000 people, per year.
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Death reate:
The number of deaths per 1000 people, per year.
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Fertility rate:
The average number of children a women will have between the age of 15 and 44 ( reproductive age)
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Infant mortality rate:
The number of children (out of every 1000 born alive) who die before their first birthday.
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Life expectancy (longevity)
The average age (in year) a person can expect to live.
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Migration rate:
The difference between the number of people who migrate in (immigrants), and the number of people who migrate out (emigrants) per 100,000 (or 1000) of the population, per year.
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Population density:
The number of people per square kilometer (km^2). It's the total population of an area divided by the size of the area (in km^2)
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Natural change:
The change in population (increase or decrease) because of the difference between birth rate and death rate (not including changes due to migration). For example, when BR >DR, the population will grow naturally, DR >BR popu... fall.
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Zero grwoth rate:
The population is neither increasing nor decreasing (e.g. BR=DR.)
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Is the (often permanent) movement of people between or within countries.
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Is the movement of people into a country (or area).
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The movement of people out of a country (or area).
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Internal migration (migration within the country)
Internal migration from rural area to urban area.
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Push factors
These are things that make people want to move out of the place they're in. They are - factors e.g. lack of jobs, poor living conditions, services and fear of political persecution.
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Pull factors
These attract people to new place. They are + factors about the place e.g. better jobs and more job opportunity, better living condition and services.
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These are things that make migration more difficult, e.g. the cost of moving.
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Dependency ratio
= (Young people (0-14) + Old people (over 65) / Working age population (15-64).
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A youthful population
Means there's a large proportion of young people in the population.
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Sustainable development
Is all about developing and growing to meet the needs of people today, without hindering the ability of people in the future to meet their own needs. It involves what we need now without damaging or altering the environment in an irreversible way.
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Economic migrants
People who move abroad to find work or a better paid job.
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Voluntary migrants
People who move because they want to.
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Asylum seekers and refugees
People who move because they're at risk, e.g. from war or persecution.Asylum seekers apply for permission to live in a country (asylum), but if it's denied they're refused entry, or may be send back (deported.
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Illegal immigrants
People who enter or stay in a country without permission.
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Rural-urban migration
Is the movement of people from rural areas (areas with a low population density, e.g. the countryside) to urban areas (areas with a high population density e.g. towns and cities
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The growth in the proportion of people living in urban areas.
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The movement of people from the city centre to the lower density housing on the outskirtsof a city.
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The movement of people out of the city into surrounding villages and rural areas.
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the movement of people back into redeveloped city centre residential areas.
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Carbon-neutral homes
The housing in the city has been designed to generate as much energy as it uses.
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Renewable energy production
The city's designed to generate all its own energy.
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Green transport strategies
The city's designed to have very low emissions.
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Inner city
High-density terraced housing built in the 19th century and high-rise block of flats built in the 1960s. Some old warehouses may have been redeveloped into luxury apartments.
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A mixed of 20th century detached and semi-detached houses with gardens. Closer to the inner city, a high proportion of properties will be council-owned. Further out, privately owned and larger, with garages and driveways.
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Rural/urban fringe
Low-density, high-quality private housing. May also be higher density outer-city council estates.
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Rural area
Large, privately owned hounsing and new estates with privately owned houses.
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Is when there are extreme inequalities between geographical areas.
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Social exclusion
Is the exclusion of individuals or groups of people from society on the basic of gender, age, race, religion, education, health or disability.
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Economic exclusion
Is the exclusion of individuals or groups on the basis of their wealth. The social or economic exclusion can be caused by inequalities.
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Marginalised group
Are groups of people that are relegated to the edge of society, usually due to social or economic exclusion.
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A place usually involves regenration-making actual improvements to an area, e.g. new buildings and services.
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Primary energy
Is released from a direct source, e.g. heat energy is released from burning coal.
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Secondary energy
when primary energy converted into a different form it becomes secondary energy e.g. when heat energy from burning coal is used to generate electricity.
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Renewable Resources
A resource is renewable it it can be replenished at a similar rate to which it's used.
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Non-renevable resources
Non-renewable resources can run out and can't be replaced in the foreseeable future.
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Acid rain
Rainfall which has become acidic due to air pollution from burning fossil fuels in known as acid rain.
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Aids (AIDS)
Aids is a virus which reduces the body's resistance to infection.
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Alternative energy
Energy provided from sources other than fossil fuels or nuclear power is known as alternative energy.
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Asylum seeker
A person who seeks protection in another country due to persecution or danger in their home country is called an asylum seeker.
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Brownfield site
Are areas of wastland in towns and cities which have previously been built on.
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Carbon dioxide
Is an atmospheric gas which is produced by burning fossil fuels and by respiration.
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Cash crop
A crop produces for sale rather than for use by the grower is called a cash crop.
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An official survey of the population of a country or region.
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Is a very large area resulting from the joining together of several other expanding settlements.
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Comparison good
Expensive items which people do not often buy are called comparison goods, because they want to compare items in different shops.
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Convenience goods
Low-cost items which people buy frequently are called convenience goods.
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Development indicators
Statistics used to measure the level of development of a country are known as development indicators.
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Something is said to be eco-friendly if it does not harm the environment.
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A resource is described as finite if it will run out one day, because the supply of it is limited.
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Green belt
An area of land around a town or city where building is restricted.
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A tourist destination which attracts many people.
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International migration
The long-term movement of people from one country to another country.
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Literacy rate
The % of people in an area who are able to read and write.
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Mega city
A settlement with a population of over 10 million, e.g. New York.
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A person who object to the building of something near to where they live. Nimby stand for 'not in my back yard'.
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Political asylum
Is the protection given by a country to a person who has left their home country because they have been persecuted for their beliefs.
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Population explosion
The rapid increase in the world population over the past 200 years.
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Rural depopulation
Means a reduction in the number of people living in rural areas.
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Sparsely populated
When an area has few people.
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The growth of housing and industry on the adge of a city.
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Means having too little food or an balanced diet, which results in poor health.
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Net migration
The difference between the number of in-migrants and out-migrants in an area.
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Population structure
The proportionof males and females in an area, usually in the form of age distribution.
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Juvenility index
=(population 0-19)/(population 20 and over).
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Old-age index
= (population 60 and over)/(population 20-59).
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A term used to describe renewable resources.
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That part of a resource that is available for use.
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Any part of the environment that can be used to meet human needs. Resource can be classed as renewable (infinite) or non-renewable (finite).
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A key term used to describe non-renewable resources.
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A form of energy created from primary fuel sources.
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Population Structure
The breakdown of a country's population into groups defined by age and sex.
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Natural increase/decrease
The difference between the numbers of births and deaths for every 100 people per year expressed as a %.
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Optimum population
The population at which the quality of life of a country or a region is the highest possible, at a given level of technological development.
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When any increase in population reduces the average quality of life of the population.
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When an increase in population could increase the average quality of life.
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The deliberate and systematic destruction or killing of an entire people who belong to one racial, political cultural or religious group.
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A time when there is so little food that many people starve.
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A state of extreme hunger resulting from lack of essential nutrients over a prolonged period.
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Green belt
An area defined by Act of Parliament which surrounds a conurbation. It is very difficult to obtain permission for development on green belt. This acts to stop the sprawl of conurbation.
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When large family houses become to big and expensive to run, the inhabitants move out and the properties are subdivided and let to students.
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A spontaneous and unplanned change by which individual families buy up rundown old property and improve it, adding to its value.
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One large, more or less continuous area created as a city grows and spreads to absorb other cities, towns and villages in the surrounding area.
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The use of open spaces within a conurbation to build new housing or services, often close to where a green belt restricts outward growth.
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Social welfare
The well-being of communities. It refers to the access that groups of people, or individuals, have to job opportunities, housing, health care, education, an unpolluted environment and freedom to practise one's culture, religion, etc.
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Below the minimum level of dietary energy (calorie) consumption. The Department of Health estimates this level at 1940 kcal per day for women and 2550 for men (average 2250), but these figures can vary widely depending on lifestyle and other factors.
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Flow resources
The result of a continuous flow like wind or tide.
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Stock resources
There is a stock of each resource and when that stock is gone it is gone forever.
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Energy mix
The different sources of energy used by households, industry and commerce, and in the electricity generation industry.
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A system of government in which the state plans and controls the economy and owns the means of population. The goods and services produced are then divided between the people in the way that the state considers best for everyone.
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A political systm in whcih the people have the power to elect their government by the vote of a majority. They also have the power to vote to change the government.
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A set of beliefs that from the basis of a political, economic or other system.
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Solar cooking
Uses the rays of the sun, often concentrated by reflection off aluminium foil, to heat a box act as a slow cooker for the food.
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Closing down a nuclear reactor and disposing of the contaminated material safely.
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Postnatal care
Health care provided following childbirth to both mother and infant.
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Forced migration
Is refers to the coerced movement of a person or persons away from their home or home region. It often connotes violent coercion, and is used interchangeably with the terms "displacement" or forced displacement.
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Voluntary migration
Based on one's free will and initiative. People move for a variety of reasons, and it involves weighing options and choices. Individuals who are interested in moving will often analyse the push and pull factors of 2 locations before making their...
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The number of deaths per 1000 people, per year.


Death reate:

Card 3


The average number of children a women will have between the age of 15 and 44 ( reproductive age)


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Card 4


The number of children (out of every 1000 born alive) who die before their first birthday.


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


The average age (in year) a person can expect to live.


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