AS History, India, British Empire Challenged. 1920- 1947

AS History, India topic, officially known as:

 Unit 2 - Option D The British Empire Challenged 


  • Created by: NishatT
  • Created on: 03-01-13 00:32
Where did Gandhi start out & develop his campaign?
South Africa
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What did Gandhi develop whilst in South Africa?
Philosophy and non-violent civil disobedience methods
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What was the initial significance of Gandhi in the beginning of campaign towards independence?
Made it a mass movement
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What was Gandhi's 'Swaraj'?
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What is Satyagraha?
Form of nonviolent resistance
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In what way did the Amritsar massacre and the Rowlett Act change Gandhi's goal?
Goal changed from home Rule to full Independence
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When did Gandhi launch his Civil disobedience campaign?
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What did the Civil disobedience campaign consist of?
boycotting elections, not paying taxes, disallowing children to attend school, refusing to attend state meetings, refusing foreign goods
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Why did the Civil disobedience campaign not succeed to its full capacity?
Many did not fully understand Gandhi's idea
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What was the results of the Hartal in Bombay, 1921?
Turned into a demonstration, looting & violence occurred
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What was the outcome of Chauri chaura, 1922?
A police station was set on fire, killing 21 Indian policemen
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Why was the review of the 1919 Government of India act (Montagu-Chelmsford report) brought forward from 1929, to 1927?
The Conservatives brought it forward, before the election date so if Labour were to come into power, they wouldn't have had the opportunity to give India too many concessions.
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What was the Simon Commission?
Recommend changes to the 1919 Gov of India act
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How was the Simon commission met in India?
Met with resistance and mass crowds
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What was the 1928 all-parties conference?
Indian politicians who produced the Nehru Report
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What did the Nehru Report show signs of?
Showed political divisions
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In 1929, The Irwin Declaration stated what?
It reinstated the Montague Declaration and asserted the attainment of 'Dominion status'
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When was Gandhi's Salt March?
1930, Symbolically took salt & broke the law as he had not payed the salt tax. Led the march, followed by the press and untouchables. Urged others to take the salt, led to imprisonment of many, 60,000 congress supporters in jail.
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What did the 1931 Gandhi-Irwin Pact achieve?
Gandhi was recognised as a politician and spiritual being. Both Gandhi & Irwin wanted to end stalemate. Civil disobedience suspended. Emergency restrictions relaxed, confiscated property returned & Gandhi agreed to attend 2nd Round Table Conference.
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What conferences did the Gandhi-Irwin pact and Salt March lead to?
The Round Table conferences, of which, were 3 various ones.
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When was the first Round Table conference?
1930, Congress refused to attend. Conference was deemed a failure however the set up of the All-Indian Federation was agreed. Allowed Indian states to take responsibility for most matters except Defense & Foreign affairs.
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What was the result of the 2nd Round table conference?
Agreements collapsed. Gandhi claimed to represent all. However separate electorates were demanded, of which Gandhi was against and so could not agree on a workable constitution.
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In 1932, what did Gandhi fast unto death against?
Enraged Gandhi fasted unto death until the 1932 Communal Award was rejected. It guaranteed separate seats to untouchables.
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How did Political divisions withing India stop any progress towards independence at the 3rd Round Table conference?
Religious Muslim & Hindu opposition stopped any progress towards independence. Neither Congress nor Labour was represented, franchise was discussed however no firm decisions were made. The conference collapsed and failed.
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What did the failure of the conference lead to?
The British government had to make its own suggestions and changes based on the Simon Report and the little success from the conference and presented the changes in the 1935 Government of India Act.
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What were the main features of the Government of India Act 1935?
Abolished the dyarchy, divided Indian into provinces to run their own affairs except military & foreign. Separate electorates, seats reserved for minorities, viceroy remains and the electorate increased to 36 million adults.
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Were the political parties pleased with the 1935 Government of India act?
Both Congress & Muslim League rejected it. Showed Britain retained the real power and complete independence wasnt being given. Congress disliked special provisions for minorities whilst the Muslim League felt Muslims didnt get enough power/protection
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Who won the majority of seats in the 1937 Election in India?
Congress were in the majority, winning 1,585 seats, claimed to be inclusive & represent everyone including the Muslims & untouchables.
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What were the causes of the growing divisions withing India?
The differing beliefs & practices between Hindus and Muslims. Hindus being in a majority whilst Muslims a minority. Muslim League afraid of Hindu domination whilst Congress was against the Muslim League getting separate electorates.
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What did the rejection of Jinnahs '14 points' om 1929 lead to?
It sparked off the Muslim Leagues campaign for a separate Muslim state. Along with the religious differences that first evoked the want for a separate state.
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When/what was the Cripps Mission?
1942, proposed concessions such as full dominion status after WW2 ended, provinces allowed to decide own fate & Indians elected own assembly to draw up a constitution. However Britain retained power over India until WW2 was over; infuriated Gandhi.
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What was the reason for the Cripps Mission & concessions made?
Britain, for fear of Japanese invasion, needed Indian support and tried using the Cripps missions to secure and persuade India's loyalty to Britain.
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How was the Cripps Missions received by Indian Politicians?
Congress rejected the proposals, as did the Muslim League. However the Muslim League were happy to accept as It would've allowed them to create a separate state of Pakistan. Congress disliked idea of separate state, launched 'Quit India' campaign.
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What was the response of Political parties within India to Britain entering WW2?
Outraged, Britain announced entering war without consulting India, reasserted Britains control over India. Congress & League supported Britain, however Congree demanded Swaraj for their support.
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What was the mixed response of Congress to Britains intervention in WW2 ?
Nehru & Congress gave their support, only if they were given swaraj. Gandhi urged negotiations with Hitler rather than a war. Congress ordered all state governments to resign, had virtually retired from the political scene.
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What was the Lahore Declaration,1940 a response to?
After Britain entering WW2 and Congress gone from the political scene, Jinnah and the Muslim League worked with the Raj to strengthen their own position by creating the Lahore Declaration. Introduced the idea of a separate Muslim state.
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How did Congress react to the Lahore Declaration?
Nehru called the idea of a separate state a 'mad scheme', Gandhi went against it and it sparked of a mini-satyagraha campaign. Many prepared for a conflict between the Hindus and Muslims.
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What year was the 'Quit India' Campaign launched?
1942, Gandhi & Congress called for a mass Civil Disobedience campaign, to 'Leave India to God' in an attempt to get 'freedom immediately' or 'die in the attempt'
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What were the consequences of the 'Quit India' campaign?
Congress was declared illegal, Nehru & Gandhi jailed. Tremendous uproar, demonstrations & riots. Government & buildings were attacked. Supplies to British troops fighting the Japanese were disrupted. Troops diverted, helped Police secure control.
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Was the 'Quit India' campaign successful?
No, to some extent. Police and troops were able to quickly secure control. Campaign subdued quickly, the army remained loyal to Britain. Congress received support, however it was not widespread. Support was not as strong as was anticipated.
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What did the 'Quit India' campaign highlight and result in?
Muslim League strengthened their position by taking the opportunity to work with the British. Showed Britain could hold India by force if necessary. Highlighted the irreconcilable religious differences and division within India.
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In 1945, what was the new government elected in Britain and what was the importance of this?
Labour was elected into government, were more willing to make concessions. Allowed Indian elections, of which Muslims won 30% of the seats in the national assembly.
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After the war, how did Britain view India as?
Britain was economically drained, became the debtinator, debt of £3billion. No longer saw India as a place of investment, no longer benefited Britain.
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What was the Simla Conference, 1945 based upon?
Scheme loosely based upon the Cripps Mission. Similar propositions however offered allowed specific number of seats for religious groups. Conference failed, deadlock between Hindu & Muslims remained.
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What was the outcome of the Cabinet Mission 1945?
Determined to keep India united, reach a decisiorn & overcome deadlock. Agreed immediate full dominion status, protection fo Muslims, provinces combine, Indian government responsible for education, health, foreign affairs & defense.Initially accepted
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What led to the Cabinet Mission proposals then being rejected?
Muslim League then rejected proposals after Congress had announced once they controlled the All-India Union, it would act as it pleased and the concept of a separate Muslim state would wither & die. This led to Jinnah calling for 'Direct Action'
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What was 'Direct Action'?
1946, announced by Jinnah, series of peaceful demonstrations/Hartals, however ended up in horror and bloodletting of civil war between Muslims & Hindus.
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What occurred in Calcutta during 'Direct Action'?
3 days of rioting, 5,000 dead, 20,000 seriously injured, 100,000 residents made homeless , police attacked and **** of killings, looting and arson spread across India.
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What was Gandhi's reaction to 'Direct Action' and the violence that pursued?
Remarked, 'If India wanted a bloodbath, she could have it', similarly, Jinnah assured that Pakistan was worth the sacrifice of 10 Million Muslims.
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What was the consequence of 'Direct Action'?
Highlighted deep opposition between the 2 religions. Led to a date set by the British for withdrawal from India, before 1948. Jinnah persuaded to become part of the government.
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What was Lord Mountbatten told to avoid when dealing with granting Indian independence?
Told by Prime Minister to avoid partition at all costs.
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What kind of a relationship did Lord Mountbatten have with the Indian Political parties?
Built a good relationship with Congress, however had a limited relationship with the Muslim League.
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What did Lord Mountbatten decide about Indian & Partition?
Convinced a united India impossible, without partition, chaos and a bloodbath would ensue. Partition was the only way to stop communal violence.
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What highlighted the need for Partition?
Direct action left bitter scars, showed unity would only lead to communal violence. The constant deadlock between between congress & Muslim League also added to the need for partition.
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What was occurring in India whilst Lord Mountbatten decision was pending?
Several riots in India especially in the Punjab and north-west frontier provinces. Gandhi's pleas of a united India falling on deaf ears. Increasing bloodbath rush partition plans.
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May 1947, what did the initial plan drawn up entail?
2 separate states, Boundary commission set up to define borders. Princely states remained independent, however joined India due to insufficient time given to decide, unhappy with this treatment. Hoped partition plan would reduce communal violence.
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When was Indian independence finally given?
14th August 1947.
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In the lead up to Independence being given, what occurred in India?
1 million murdered in senseless bloodletting, 10 million exchanged lands. British military did not control the situation.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What did Gandhi develop whilst in South Africa?


Philosophy and non-violent civil disobedience methods

Card 3


What was the initial significance of Gandhi in the beginning of campaign towards independence?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What was Gandhi's 'Swaraj'?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is Satyagraha?


Preview of the front of card 5
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Sarah Gold


Thank you! helpful :-)



These 58 flashcards are a great, quickfire way of testing key facts, dates etc. for Edexcel Unit 2, option D2.

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