AQA Biology B1.1: Keeping Healthy

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1. What is the main reason it is medically beneficial to grow and investigate cultures of microorganisms?

  • Their reactions to various new antibiotics can be observed, to see the effectiveness of a developing drug
  • Their reproductive rate under different conditions can be observed, and thus accurate prognoses and medical predictions made
  • The effectiveness of specialised scientific equipment in dealing with microorganisms can be observed
  • Medical researchers can earn money! ;)
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2. Why did many medical professionals not initially accept Semmelweis's proposal?

  • Pathogens had not been discovered, so he could not prove why this would make a difference
  • The fatality rate in hospitals was relatively low anyway, and they didn't think it mattered
  • He was only a young doctor, who had made no former discoveries
  • His suggestion appeared to counteract previous findings by other scientists

3. 'Pathogen' is synonymous with (another word for) 'disease'. True or false?

  • False: Pathogens are microorganisms that cause disease, they are not the disease themselves
  • True: Pathogens are the microscopic embodiment of any given disease

4. Which of the following is not a method by which white blood cells combat pathogens?

  • Change their shape and ingest the pathogen through surrounding and engulfing it
  • Produce and emit flagellites, which begin to break down all constituent amino acids of the bacteria, starting at the flagella
  • Emit specialised antibodies to destroy the antigens (surface proteins) of the pathogens
  • Produce and emit antitoxins, which counteract the effects of pathogens' toxins. Antitoxins are specialised

5. Genetic alterations can result in a new forms of pathogens. These new forms may develop into entire strands of antibiotic resistant bacteria through...

  • Genetic descendancy
  • Natural selection
  • Selective inheritance
  • The theory of acquired characteristics

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