1. A seemingly random alteration in the composition of genetic material during its mitotic replication in asexual reproduction is referred to as a...
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2. A nationwide contagion is an epidemic. An international contagion is referred to as a...
3. Some vaccines may have detrimental, even dangerous side effects. True or false?
- True: Vaccines cause immunity, but also, sometimes, other ailments; it is worth contracting a short-term mild illness for entire prevention of a more serious one, however, most people argue
- False: Vaccines are entirely safe; immunity is not worth the risk of contraction of another disease, most people argue
4. Which of the following is not a method by which white blood cells combat pathogens?
- Produce and emit flagellites, which begin to break down all constituent amino acids of the bacteria, starting at the flagella
- Emit specialised antibodies to destroy the antigens (surface proteins) of the pathogens
- Change their shape and ingest the pathogen through surrounding and engulfing it
- Produce and emit antitoxins, which counteract the effects of pathogens' toxins. Antitoxins are specialised
5. Why did many medical professionals not initially accept Semmelweis's proposal?
- Pathogens had not been discovered, so he could not prove why this would make a difference
- The fatality rate in hospitals was relatively low anyway, and they didn't think it mattered
- He was only a young doctor, who had made no former discoveries
- His suggestion appeared to counteract previous findings by other scientists