1. Which of the following is the name for the small poisonous substances emitted by pathogens?
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2. 'Pathogen' is synonymous with (another word for) 'disease'. True or false?
- False: Pathogens are microorganisms that cause disease, they are not the disease themselves
- True: Pathogens are the microscopic embodiment of any given disease
3. Why did many medical professionals not initially accept Semmelweis's proposal?
- His suggestion appeared to counteract previous findings by other scientists
- The fatality rate in hospitals was relatively low anyway, and they didn't think it mattered
- Pathogens had not been discovered, so he could not prove why this would make a difference
- He was only a young doctor, who had made no former discoveries
4. A nationwide contagion is an epidemic. An international contagion is referred to as a...
5. Which of the following is an accurate description of vaccines can develop immunity?
- Dead or inactive forms of the relevant pathogen pass into the body's blood vessels; the body's pores and epithelial tissues then develop preventative mucuses and acidic compounds that will trap and kill these pathogens in the future
- Dead or inactive forms of the relevant pathogen are injected into the patient. The patient's white blood cells then respond by learning and emitting the appropriate antibodies and antitoxins, remembering these for the future
- The vaccine contains raw antibodies, antitoxins, and, in certain cases, additional white blood cells, that are then stored by the body, for immediate release if the corresponding pathogens enter the body. Leukocytes must match antigenic composition
- The vaccine contains no pathogens, but does contain enzymes that catalyse and improve leukocytic protein synthesis; this means that white blood cells become stronger, and can produce more effective antibodies and antitoxins