AQA Biology B1.1: Keeping Healthy

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1. Why can antibiotics not be used effectively to combat viruses?

  • Viruses replicate the body's own genetic material, and incorporate this into their own plasmids, and thus effectively become genetically identical to the body, and cannot be identified as harmful foreign bodies
  • Viruses reside and reproduce within the body's own cells, and thus cannot be easily identified as harmful foreign bodies and inhibited
  • Viruses do not have antigens (surface proteins), and thus their protein composition cannot be fragmented by antibiotics
  • Viruses are more proficiently adapted to infection than bacteria, and thus develop antibiotic resistance to quickly to make use viable
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Other questions in this quiz

2. A seemingly random alteration in the composition of genetic material during its mitotic replication in asexual reproduction is referred to as a...

  • Modification
  • Variation
  • Mutation
  • Skeuomorph

3. Antibiotics are drugs which kill pathogens, or infective bacteria. True or false?

  • True: Antibiotics destroy the pathogens, thereby killing them. They are 'anti-bio', 'against-life'
  • False: Antibiotics merely reduce the pathogen to an ineffective and harmless state. For efficiency, these ineffective pathogens can then be removed for use in vaccines, for immunisation

4. Vaccines contain pathogens. True or false?

  • True: But only dead or inactive forms of them; in this way, immunity can develop at little or no risk to the patient
  • False: This would be an entirely unnecessary risk; immunity is developed more effectively without the presence of pathogens to elicit illness

5. Which of the following is not a method by which white blood cells combat pathogens?

  • Change their shape and ingest the pathogen through surrounding and engulfing it
  • Emit specialised antibodies to destroy the antigens (surface proteins) of the pathogens
  • Produce and emit antitoxins, which counteract the effects of pathogens' toxins. Antitoxins are specialised
  • Produce and emit flagellites, which begin to break down all constituent amino acids of the bacteria, starting at the flagella


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