AQA Biology B1.1: Keeping Healthy

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1. What is the main reason it is medically beneficial to grow and investigate cultures of microorganisms?

  • Medical researchers can earn money! ;)
  • Their reactions to various new antibiotics can be observed, to see the effectiveness of a developing drug
  • The effectiveness of specialised scientific equipment in dealing with microorganisms can be observed
  • Their reproductive rate under different conditions can be observed, and thus accurate prognoses and medical predictions made
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2. Which of the following is an accurate description of vaccines can develop immunity?

  • Dead or inactive forms of the relevant pathogen pass into the body's blood vessels; the body's pores and epithelial tissues then develop preventative mucuses and acidic compounds that will trap and kill these pathogens in the future
  • Dead or inactive forms of the relevant pathogen are injected into the patient. The patient's white blood cells then respond by learning and emitting the appropriate antibodies and antitoxins, remembering these for the future
  • The vaccine contains raw antibodies, antitoxins, and, in certain cases, additional white blood cells, that are then stored by the body, for immediate release if the corresponding pathogens enter the body. Leukocytes must match antigenic composition
  • The vaccine contains no pathogens, but does contain enzymes that catalyse and improve leukocytic protein synthesis; this means that white blood cells become stronger, and can produce more effective antibodies and antitoxins

3. Which of the following is an apparatus usually used in the development of controlled bacteria cultures?

  • Sterilising loop
  • Inoculating loop
  • Vaccinating loop
  • Immunising loop

4. Which of the following is not a method by which white blood cells combat pathogens?

  • Change their shape and ingest the pathogen through surrounding and engulfing it
  • Emit specialised antibodies to destroy the antigens (surface proteins) of the pathogens
  • Produce and emit antitoxins, which counteract the effects of pathogens' toxins. Antitoxins are specialised
  • Produce and emit flagellites, which begin to break down all constituent amino acids of the bacteria, starting at the flagella

5. Which of the following is the name for the small poisonous substances emitted by pathogens?

  • Toxans
  • Toxins
  • Toxicons
  • Toxilla

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