AQA Psychology- Unit 4

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1. What did Szasz propose?

  • There is no such thing as mental illness, Instead it's a way for society to label and exclude those who don't fit in
  • Studied 3 clinicians and 5 patients and found that the inter-rater reliability was +.72, showing high IR possibly due to extensive training
  • In Japan there is a condition called TKS which is a fear of social situations but in the UK this is not recgonised as a disorder, supporting the idea of cultural differences
  • 66% of patients with 1 disorder had another leading to inaccurate diagnosis, confirming the idea of co-morbidity
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2. What did Mineka et al find?

  • 64% of blood phobics had at least 1 relative with the same disorder
  • Twin studies, MZ twins 5x more likely than DZ twins to both have an anxiety disorder
  • Monkeys developed a fear towards a snake if they saw another monkey show a fear response but didn't show the same response to a flower, supporting the evolutionary explanations
  • Pictures of feared objects were masked, yet phobic patients showed greastest ANS arousal compared to neutral objexts, supporting prepotency

3. What are the evaluative points for psychological explanations of phobias?

  • Little Albert, Bregmans, Bandura + Rosenthal, Little Hans
  • Ost, SImpson, Bregmans, Bandura + Rosenthal, Little Hans
  • Little Albert, Bregmans, Bandura + Rosenthal, Torgerson
  • Eysenck, Little Hans, Bandura + Rosenthal, Simpson

4. What categories do symptoms fall under?

  • Emotional (irrational thoughts), cognitive (sweating), Physical (running away), behavioural (panic)
  • Emotional (panic), cognitive (irrational thoughts), Physical (sweating), behavioural (running away)
  • Emotional (irrational thoughts), cognitive (panic), Physical (sweating), behavioural (running away)

5. What did Torgerson find?

  • Twin studies, MZ twins 5x more likely than DZ twins to both have an anxiety disorder
  • 64% of blood phobics had at least 1 relative with the same disorder
  • Monkeys developed a fear towards a snake if they saw another monkey show a fear response but didn't show the same response to a flower, supporting the evolutionary explanations
  • Pictures of feared objects were masked, yet phobic patients showed greastest ANS arousal compared to neutral objexts, supporting prepotency

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