AQA Psychology- Unit 4

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1. What are the issues relating to classification of phobias?

  • Test-retest reliablity, Inter-rater reliability, Co-morbidity, Stigamatisation, cultural differences
  • reliability, Co-morbidity, Stigamatisation, cultural differences
  • Test-retest reliablity, Inter-rater reliability, Co-morbidity, Stigamatisation,
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2. What did Torgerson find?

  • Twin studies, MZ twins 5x more likely than DZ twins to both have an anxiety disorder
  • Monkeys developed a fear towards a snake if they saw another monkey show a fear response but didn't show the same response to a flower, supporting the evolutionary explanations
  • Pictures of feared objects were masked, yet phobic patients showed greastest ANS arousal compared to neutral objexts, supporting prepotency
  • 64% of blood phobics had at least 1 relative with the same disorder

3. What are the evaluative points for psychological explanations of phobias?

  • Little Albert, Bregmans, Bandura + Rosenthal, Little Hans
  • Little Albert, Bregmans, Bandura + Rosenthal, Torgerson
  • Eysenck, Little Hans, Bandura + Rosenthal, Simpson
  • Ost, SImpson, Bregmans, Bandura + Rosenthal, Little Hans

4. What are the 3 main types of phobias?

  • Emotional, cognitive, physical, behavioural
  • Aracnaphobia, Specific, social
  • Specific, social, agorophobia
  • Emotional, Social, specific

5. What did Bandura and Rosenthal find?

  • Observer watched a model apparently experience pain each time a buzzer sounded and later showed emotional distress towards buzzer, supporting the social learning theory
  • Failed to condition infants to fear a wooden block when associated with a loud bell, supporting biological preparedness
  • Studied Little Hans are proposed that his phobia towards horses was due to unresolved unconscious issues between his unconscious
  • Conditioning Little Albert to fear white rats when associated with a loud noice, supporting classical conditioning

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