AQA Psychology- Unit 4

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1. What are the biological explanations for phobic disorders?

  • Biological explanations (expectancy bias, ancient fears, prepotency) + Evolutionary explanations (inherit certain genetics from parents who suffer)
  • Behavioural approach (classical conditioning- association, operant condtioning- consequence, Social learing theory) Psychodynamic explanation (phobias are repressed conflicts of the unconscious)
  • Evolutionary explanations (expectancy bias, ancient fears, prepotency) + Biological explanations (inherit certain genetics from parents who suffer)
  • Behavioural approach (phobias are repressed conflicts of the unconscious) + Psychodynamic explanation (classical conditioning- association, operant condtioning- consequence, Social learing theory)
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2. What are the biological therapies for phobias and explain each?

  • Drug therapies (Benzodiazapines, beta blockers, MAOIs), Psychosurgery (Capsulatomy: probe inserted and capsule tissue is burnt away, Cingulotomy: probe inserted and cingulum burn't away, Deep brain stimulation)
  • Systematic desensiatisation (hirarchy created and then work through scenerios either in vitro- imagination or in vivo- real) and CBT (REBT-ABC)
  • CBT- (hirarchy created and then work through scenerios either in vitro- imagination or in vivo- real) , Systematic desensitisation (CBT, REBT)
  • Drug therapy: (Capsulatomy: probe inserted and capsule tissue is burnt away, Cingulotomy: probe inserted and cingulum burn't away, Deep brain stimulation) + Psychosurgery (Benzodiazapines, beta blockers, MAOIs),

3. What are the evaluative studies of issues relating to classification of phobias?

  • Skyre, Eysenck, TKS, Turner et al, Kuhn et al
  • Skyre, Eysenck, Szasz, TKS
  • Mermestein, Skyre, Eysenck, Szasz
  • Eysenck, Szasz, TKS, Mermestein

4. What did Ohman + Soares find?

  • 64% of blood phobics had at least 1 relative with the same disorder
  • Pictures of feared objects were masked, yet phobic patients showed greastest ANS arousal compared to neutral objexts, supporting prepotency
  • Monkeys developed a fear towards a snake if they saw another monkey show a fear response but didn't show the same response to a flower, supporting the evolutionary explanations
  • Twin studies, MZ twins 5x more likely than DZ twins to both have an anxiety disorder

5. What did Bregmans find?

  • Observer watched a model apparently experience pain each time a buzzer sounded and later showed emotional distress towards buzzer, supporting the social learning theory
  • Failed to condition infants to fear a wooden block when associated with a loud bell, supporting biological preparedness
  • Conditioning Little Albert to fear white rats when associated with a loud noice, supporting classical conditioning
  • Studied Little Hans are proposed that his phobia towards horses was due to unresolved unconscious issues between his unconscious

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