1. What did Szasz propose?
- There is no such thing as mental illness, Instead it's a way for society to label and exclude those who don't fit in
- 66% of patients with 1 disorder had another leading to inaccurate diagnosis, confirming the idea of co-morbidity
- Studied 3 clinicians and 5 patients and found that the inter-rater reliability was +.72, showing high IR possibly due to extensive training
- In Japan there is a condition called TKS which is a fear of social situations but in the UK this is not recgonised as a disorder, supporting the idea of cultural differences
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2. What did Torgerson find?
- 64% of blood phobics had at least 1 relative with the same disorder
- Monkeys developed a fear towards a snake if they saw another monkey show a fear response but didn't show the same response to a flower, supporting the evolutionary explanations
- Twin studies, MZ twins 5x more likely than DZ twins to both have an anxiety disorder
- Pictures of feared objects were masked, yet phobic patients showed greastest ANS arousal compared to neutral objexts, supporting prepotency
3. What are the evaluative points for psychological explanations of phobias?
- Little Albert, Bregmans, Bandura + Rosenthal, Little Hans
- Little Albert, Bregmans, Bandura + Rosenthal, Torgerson
- Eysenck, Little Hans, Bandura + Rosenthal, Simpson
- Ost, SImpson, Bregmans, Bandura + Rosenthal, Little Hans
4. What are the 3 main types of phobias?
- Emotional, Social, specific
- Emotional, cognitive, physical, behavioural
- Specific, social, agorophobia
- Aracnaphobia, Specific, social
5. What are the psychological therapies for phobias and explain each?
- Systematic desensiatisation (hirarchy created and then work through scenerios either in vitro- imagination or in vivo- real) and CBT (REBT-ABC)
- CBT- (hirarchy created and then work through scenerios either in vitro- imagination or in vivo- real) , Systematic desensitisation (CBT, REBT)
- Drug use, psycho-surgery, Systematic desensiatisation (hirarchy created and then work through scenerios either in vitro- imagination or in vivo- real)
- Drug use, psycho-surgery, CBT (REBT-ABC)