AQA Psychology- Unit 4

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1. What is Skyre et al find?

  • There is no such thing as mental illness, Instead it's a way for society to label and exclude those who don't fit in
  • Studied 3 clinicians and 5 patients and found that the inter-rater reliability was +.72, showing high IR possibly due to extensive training
  • 66% of patients with 1 disorder had another leading to inaccurate diagnosis, confirming the idea of co-morbidity
  • In Japan there is a condition called TKS which is a fear of social situations but in the UK this is not recgonised as a disorder, supporting the idea of cultural differences
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2. What are the psychological therapies for phobias and explain each?

  • Drug use, psycho-surgery, Systematic desensiatisation (hirarchy created and then work through scenerios either in vitro- imagination or in vivo- real)
  • Drug use, psycho-surgery, CBT (REBT-ABC)
  • Systematic desensiatisation (hirarchy created and then work through scenerios either in vitro- imagination or in vivo- real) and CBT (REBT-ABC)
  • CBT- (hirarchy created and then work through scenerios either in vitro- imagination or in vivo- real) , Systematic desensitisation (CBT, REBT)

3. What a the psychological explanations for phobic disorders?

  • Evolutionary explanations (expectancy bias, ancient fears, prepotency) + Biological explanations (inherit certain genetics from parents who suffer)
  • Biological explanations (expectancy bias, ancient fears, prepotency) + Evolutionary explanations (inherit certain genetics from parents who suffer)
  • Behavioural approach (classical conditioning- association, operant condtioning- consequence, Social learing theory) Psychodynamic explanation (phobias are repressed conflicts of the unconscious)
  • Behavioural approach (phobias are repressed conflicts of the unconscious) + Psychodynamic explanation (classical conditioning- association, operant condtioning- consequence, Social learing theory)

4. What did Torgerson find?

  • Pictures of feared objects were masked, yet phobic patients showed greastest ANS arousal compared to neutral objexts, supporting prepotency
  • 64% of blood phobics had at least 1 relative with the same disorder
  • Twin studies, MZ twins 5x more likely than DZ twins to both have an anxiety disorder
  • Monkeys developed a fear towards a snake if they saw another monkey show a fear response but didn't show the same response to a flower, supporting the evolutionary explanations

5. What are the issues relating to classification of phobias?

  • Test-retest reliablity, Inter-rater reliability, Co-morbidity, Stigamatisation,
  • Test-retest reliablity, Inter-rater reliability, Co-morbidity, Stigamatisation, cultural differences
  • reliability, Co-morbidity, Stigamatisation, cultural differences

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