PSYA3 AQA A PSYCHOLOGY - RELATIONSHIPS

This is all the notes for Psychology unit 3 - Relationships

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ UNIT 3 - RELATIONSHIPS
THE FORMATION
OF ROMANTIC
RELATIONSHIPS
REWARD/NEED SATISFACTION THEORY SIMILARITY THEORY
BYRNE & CLORE 1970 BYRNE, CLORE & SMEATON 1986
We are attracted to people who we find satisfying/gratifying to be with. Most stimuli in our lives can be viewed as being rewarding or punishing in The essence of this view is that similarity promotes liking. According to this
some way. The sort of thing we find rewarding tend to reflect our unmet needs (e.g. the need for company, financial security, attractive partner) model, we first sort potential partners for dissimilarity, avoiding those whos
A01 Mutual attraction occurs when each partner meets the other person's needs. personality/attitude is different from ours. Then from those remaining, we c
REWARD/PUNSIHMENT - Rewarding stimuli produce positive feelings in us (make us happy) & punishing stimuli lead to negative feelings (unhappy) then choose the ones who are most similar to ourselves. We are therefore,
According to the principals of operant conditioning we are likely to repeat any behaviour that leads to a desirable outcome and avoid any that likely to form relationships with people similar to ourselves.
doesn't.
PERSONALITY: We are more likely to be attracted to others who have similar ra
BYRNE & CLORE'S theory therefore suggest that we enter into relationships because the presence of some individuals is directly associated with than dissimilar or complementary personality traits. (e.g. 2 people who are serio
reinforcements which makes them more attractive to us. and hardworking are more likely to be attracted to each other than a serious,
ATTRACTION THROUGH ASSOCIATION - We are attracted to people who are associated with pleasant events. They acquire positive value because hardworking person and someone whose main interest are having fun and avoid
of their association with something else that makes us happy. (classical conditioning) A relationship is likely to succeed when the positive feelings responsibility. Of course this isn't always the case)
outweigh the negative feelings and likely to fail when negative outweigh the positive. However, research suggests that similarity is more often the rule, particular
long-term relationships. Caspi & Herbener (1990) found that married couple
OTHER FACTORS:
with similar personalities tend to be happier than couples with less similar
PROXIMITY ­ Physical closeness we are social animals and need to be with others (affiliation) More likely to meet, so more likely to form a personalities
relationship. The more often people are exposed to an object, the more positively they evaluate that object: Humans like familiar things, they makeATTITUDE: If partners' attitudes towards important issues differ, the process of
attitude alignments may occur, as one or both partners modify their attitudes to
us feel safe and happy which is rewarding.
produce similarity.
EXPOSURE/FAMILIARITY ­ Proximity increases possibility of interaction (exposure) which leads to familiarity. We like familiar things and find them
rewarding. Moreland & Beach, 4 women attended classes, 0, 5, 10 and 15 times. More classes she attended=more favourable her ratings.
PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS According to the attractiveness stereotype (Dion et al 1972) we think attractive looking people have more attractive RESEARCH SUPPORT: Pairs selected based on attitudes; ½ similar attitudes &
personalities, and we are rewarded with kudos of being with an attractive person. Teachers judge attractive students as more intelligent than dissimilar attitudes, the pairs went on a date
unattractive students (Clifford & Walster, 1973), Results: Highly similar pairs were more attracted to each other than dissimilar p
RESEARCH: (IDA) CULTURAL SIMILARITIES - Rosenbaum (1986)
A02/ RESEARCH SUPPORT: R/NST - VEITCH & GRIFFITT 1976
Placed participants in a waiting room where they listened to either good or bad news with a stranger present. When they were asked to rate Suggested that dissimilarity rather than similarity was the more important factor
A03 the stranger the degree of liking was related to the kind of news they has been listening to. determining whether a relationship will form. This dissimilarity-repulsion hypoth
has been tested in a number of cultures, e.g. Singh & Tan (1992) in Singapore, an
Drigotas (1993) in the USA. These studies established that the participants were
RESEARCH SUPPORT: Attraction through association: GRIFFITT & GUAY attracted to each other because of similarity of attitudes, and that, as they got to
Participants had to say how much they liked an onlooker. The onlooker was rated more highly in the condition where the performance of the know each other better, those who discovered more dissimilarities than similarit
participant has been positively evaluated by the experimenter. In fact, participants rated both individuals (experimenter & onlooker) the same. became less attracted to each other.

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ UNIT 3 - RELATIONSHIPS
CULTURAL/INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES (IDA) : The theory doesn't account for cultural and gender differences in the formation of relationships,
suggesting that it is not a universal explanation of the formation of relationships. Lott (1994) suggests that in many cultures women are more
focused on the needs of others rather than receiving reinforcement.…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ UNIT 3 - RELATIONSHIPS
concluded that because women tend to seek less for themselves in a relationship, this makes
­ Theory doesn't explain why people leave relationships despite having no alternative, nor does it suggest how great the equity a less relevant explanation of relationship satisfaction in real-life relationships.
disparity in CL has to be for it to become unacceptable. Therefore, it challenges the universality of equity as a determinant of relationship satisfaction.…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ UNIT 3 - RELATIONSHIPS
RSEARCH SUPPORT: BOEKHOUT ET AL. 1999 ROLLIE & DUCKS model is supported by observations of real-life break-ups.
A02/ Found that extramarital affairs were typically a direct reaction to a perceived lack of skills and/or GENDER DIFFERENCES ­ Women are more likely to stress unhappiness and incompatibility as reasons for dissolution
stimulation in the existing relationship.…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ UNIT 3 - RELATIONSHIPS
A NON-EVOLUNTIONRY EXPLANATION (IDA) ­ RESEARCH SUPPORT ­ CLARK & HATFIELD RESEARCH SUPPORT ­ BUSS I989
AO2/A Some critics reject sexual selection as an explanation for male
preferences for younger women. An alternative explanation is
Study to investigate differences in reproductive
behaviour between men and women. Strangers on
Explored mate preferences among males/females. Involved over 10,000 people from 37
different cultures, including a wide diversity of ethnic, religious, political & economic groups.…read more

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Comments

Natalie

Hey these notes are really good but I cant seem to print them properly they don't fit to the page and I've tried changing the format ect but its not happening ?

lilz-m

These notes are great, thank you! If anyone needs a tip of how to print it out, I print-screened each page and pasted them into a new document with the normal alignments, and then cropped and enlarged it so that each table fit the page

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