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Unit 4
Phobias…read more

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1. Marked and persistent fear that is excessive
and/or unreasonable.
2. Exposure to the phobic stimulus provokes an
anxiety response.
I know I have a 3. Person recognises fear is excessive or
4. The phobic situation is avoided or endured
with intense distress.
5. The fear interferes significantly with their
daily routine.
6. Must be present in individuals under 18 years
6 months +
old for at least 6 months.
7. Not better accounted for by another mental
disorder.…read more

Slide 3

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What is...
0 Internal reliability ­ different parts of test should give consistent
0 External reliability ­ same results when same participants used
regardless of when study conducted ie. Different days
0 Inter-rater reliability ­ same results regardless of who
administers the test
0 Internal validity ­ extent to which results of test are caused by
variable being measured rather than extraneous variables
0 External validity ­ extent to which results of test can be
0 Ecological validity ­ extent to which results of test reflect real life
0 Population validity ­ extent to which sample used is
representative.…read more

Slide 4

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0 Skyre et al. (1991) assessed inter-rater reliability using 3
54 patients assessed using Structured Clinical Interview ­ semi-
structured interview
High inter-rater agreement (shows diagnosis is reliable).
0 Kendler et al. (1999) used face-to-face and telephone interviews
to assess individuals with phobias.
After 1 month, mean agreement of +.46, After 8 years mean
agreement of +.30 (low test-retest reliability).
0 Patient's poor recall of fears (over-exaggerating previous
0 Clinical thresholds for symptoms are subjective…read more

Slide 5

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0 Comorbidity (Kendler et al. reported that up to 66% of patients with
one anxiety disorder are diagnosed with another). Suggests anxiety
disorders categories may not be valid.
0 Concurrent validity (comparing one method with another previously
validated method ­ Mattick and Clarke's Social Phobia Scale correlated
well with other methods.)
0 Construct validity (measures extent to which a test measures a target
0 Some social phobias share characteristics of avoidant personality
0 Rosenhan and his pseudopatients. Once admitted into psychiatric unit
they behaved normally. However their behaviour was still seen as a
symptom of their disorder ­ once people are labelled as having a
disorder, all of their behaviour can be interpreted as being caused by
the disorder.…read more

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Diagnosis by computer
0 Kobak suggested that this is advantageous in many ways, such as;
ease of administration, cost-effectiveness and increased
reliability as no interviewer bias.
0 Also allows people with social phobias to be honest without fear
of negative evaluation.
0 Heimberg suggests validity will be reduced. Skilled clinician plays
important role in disclosure of troubling information, where as
this can be easily avoided when `talking' to a computer.…read more

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