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Classification
1. Marked and persistent fear that is excessive
and/or unreasonable.
2. Exposure to the phobic stimulus provokes an
anxiety response.
I know I have a 3. Person recognises fear is excessive or
problem
unreasonable.
4. The phobic situation is avoided or endured
x
with intense distress.
5. The fear interferes significantly with their
daily routine.
6. Must be present in individuals under 18 years
6 months +
old for at least 6 months.
7. Not better accounted for by another mental
disorder.…read more

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What is...
RELIABILITY:
0 Internal reliability ­ different parts of test should give consistent
results
0 External reliability ­ same results when same participants used
regardless of when study conducted ie. Different days
0 Inter-rater reliability ­ same results regardless of who
administers the test
VALIDITY:
0 Internal validity ­ extent to which results of test are caused by
variable being measured rather than extraneous variables
0 External validity ­ extent to which results of test can be
generalised
0 Ecological validity ­ extent to which results of test reflect real life
0 Population validity ­ extent to which sample used is
representative.…read more

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Reliability
RESEARCH:
0 Skyre et al. (1991) assessed inter-rater reliability using 3
clinicians.
54 patients assessed using Structured Clinical Interview ­ semi-
structured interview
High inter-rater agreement (shows diagnosis is reliable).
0 Kendler et al. (1999) used face-to-face and telephone interviews
to assess individuals with phobias.
After 1 month, mean agreement of +.46, After 8 years mean
agreement of +.30 (low test-retest reliability).
REASONS:
0 Patient's poor recall of fears (over-exaggerating previous
distress)
0 Clinical thresholds for symptoms are subjective…read more

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Validity
REASONS:
0 Comorbidity (Kendler et al. reported that up to 66% of patients with
one anxiety disorder are diagnosed with another). Suggests anxiety
disorders categories may not be valid.
0 Concurrent validity (comparing one method with another previously
validated method ­ Mattick and Clarke's Social Phobia Scale correlated
well with other methods.)
0 Construct validity (measures extent to which a test measures a target
construct.)
0 Some social phobias share characteristics of avoidant personality
disorder.
0 Rosenhan and his pseudopatients. Once admitted into psychiatric unit
they behaved normally. However their behaviour was still seen as a
symptom of their disorder ­ once people are labelled as having a
disorder, all of their behaviour can be interpreted as being caused by
the disorder.…read more

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Diagnosis by computer
0 Kobak suggested that this is advantageous in many ways, such as;
ease of administration, cost-effectiveness and increased
reliability as no interviewer bias.
0 Also allows people with social phobias to be honest without fear
of negative evaluation.
0 Heimberg suggests validity will be reduced. Skilled clinician plays
important role in disclosure of troubling information, where as
this can be easily avoided when `talking' to a computer.…read more

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