AQA psychology keywords

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  • Created by: Bradan_16
  • Created on: 12-03-17 12:39
Encoding
Changing information so that it can be stored
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Storage
Holding Information In the memory system
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Retrieval
Recovering Information from storage
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Multi - Store
The Idea that information passes through a series of memory stores
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Sensory store
Hold information received from the sense fro a very short period of time
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Short - Term memory
Holds approximately seven chunks of information fro a limited time
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Long- Term memory
Holds vast amounts of information for extremely amount of time
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Recency Effect
Information received later is recalled better than earlier
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Primary Effect
The first information received is recalled better than subsequent information
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Reconstructive memory
Altering a memory to make more sense to the person
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Structural Processing
Thinking about the physical appearance of the words to be learnt
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Phonetic processing
Thinking about the sound of a words to be learnt
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Semantic Processing
Thinking about the meaning of word to be learnt
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Levels of Processing
The depth at which information is thought about when trying to learnt
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Interference
Things that we have learnt that makes it difficult ti recall other information that we have learnt
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Retroactive interference
When information we have learnt hinders our ability to recall old information
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Proactive interference
When Information we have already learnt hinder our ability to recall new information
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Context
The General setting or environment in which activities happen
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Anterograde amnesia
Being unable to learn and retain new information
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Retrograde
Being unable to recall old information
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Hippocampus
A Structure of the brain where memory is stored
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Reliability
In the Context of Eye wittiness testimonies, the extent to which it can be regarded as accurate
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Leading Question
A question that hint that particular type of answers is required
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Cognitive Interview
A method of questioning witness that involves recreating context of a event
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Stereotypes
An oversimplified and generalized idea of a group of people such as The homeless, the stereotypes is there all druggies
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Communication
Passing information from one person to another
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Verbal Communication
Communication through words
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Para-linguistics
Vocal features that accompany speech
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Tone of Voice
the ways word are spoken to convey emotion
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Emphasis
Giving prominence to some words more than others
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Intonation
inflection in the voice when speaking
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Non-Verbal communication
Conveying information that require the use of words
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Eye Contact
When two People in a conversation are looking at each other at the same time
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Pupil Dilation
When the Pupils The eye expand to look larger
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Practical implications
suggestion about behavior in the real world beyond the research study based upon what psychologist have discovered
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Body language
A general term to describe of non-verbal communication
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Posture
The positioning of the body, often regarding as non-verbal communication signal
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Postural Echo
Mirroring and other person body position
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Confederate
an actor in or stooge who appears to be genuine in a experiment
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Closed Posture
Positioning the body with closed arms
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Open posture
positioning arms so they are not folded
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Personal space
The appropriate distance between people
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Sex difference
Difference in which males and females stand togethor
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Individual difference
Factor that makes one person not the same as another person
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Cultural norms
The range of the behaviour that members of a particular social group or society can be expected to show
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Status
a person rank and position within society
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Personality
The thoughts feeling and behaviors that make an individual unique
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Temperament
the genetic component of personality
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Longitudinal studies
a study over as long period of time
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Monozygotic twins
twins developed from one fertilized egg
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Dizygotic twins
Twins developed from two separate eggs
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Type Theory
personality are thought to be inherited. they can be described
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Extrovert
Easy going and sociable
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Introvert
A prefer to be in there own company and have a small group of friend
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Neurotic
Highly emotional and anxious with little to no friends
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Personality scale
ways of measuring a person behavior tendinitis
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Psychotic
The 4th dimension of the Eysenck scale
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DSM-IV TR
List different mental disorders and the criteria fro diagnosis
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Amygdala
Part of the brain involved in emotion
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Grey matter
The outer layers of the brain
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Prefontal Context
the very front of the brain involed in social and moral skills
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socioeconomic factors
social and financial that can effect an individual
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media
newspaper, tv
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role Models
someone who a child looks up to
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Prejudice
View on a group of people that aren't verbalized
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Discrimination
View on a group of people that are acted upon
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Authoritarian personality
People who's personality is prone to prejudice
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F scale
The Questionnaire used by Adorno to measure personalty characteristics
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Robbers Cave
the Name given to sheriffs experiment
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In-groups
a group of people you believe you have something in common with for fro example your psychology groups
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Out-groups
A group of people whom you believe you have you have nothing in common with.
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Jigsaw method
The name given to the technique used by Aronson to reduce prejudiced
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Expert Groups
Another name fro the jigsaw method
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Contact
Seeing, Speaking or writing to someone
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Empathy
Understanding other feelings ( Psychopath have the inability of empathy )
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Hypothesis
An idea that can be tested using The three variables
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variables
factors in experiments
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Independent Variable
The variable in which that resaerch is changed
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Dependent
the Variable we mesure
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control
the Variable we keep the same
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experiment
a test using the three variables
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Condition
An dual Trial experiment
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Order effect
This Occurs when a participant change idea in a second trial
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participant variable
the Variable in which participant are different
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standardized procedures
a set order of events
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Radom Allocation
a Procedure in which a participant is randomly tested
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counterbalance
a Procedure to event out affairs
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Extraeous variable
the Variable that effect depedent variable
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control
naking sure an experiment is fair
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instruction
infomation given during an experiment
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Randomization
using chance to produce and order for a procedure
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Ecological validity
expeiment that might be seen as unsafe
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objectivity
not affecting result on person bias
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Partipants
a person who is selected to take part in an experiment
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sample
a small experiment group
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target population
a large group that reachser wish to study
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representative
the sample group made up of similar people
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generalized
a result that can be used on a target population
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Random sample
any member of a group in a small portion
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Opportunity sample
people who are members of the target population
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systematic sample
every nth member of the target population is selected
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starified sample
to obtain this a sample must be of differnt subgroups but from one target population such as indian american but one from any tribe
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Raw Data
the collected idea of a study
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mean
a statistic calculated by adding all the scores up and dividing but the total amount
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median
the middle value
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range
a the difference between the highest to lowest value
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Anomalous result
a result that different a noticed pattern
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percentage
a proportion of a factor of 100
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ethical issue
points of concern about someone moral right
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Learning
A change in behavior due to new experience
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Classic conditioning
a procedure during which an animal or person learns to associate a reflex response with new stimulus
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Classic Conditioning schedule
the steps in the procedure to condition a new response
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unconditional stimulus UCS
a natural response to a stimulus
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unconditional response UCR
the reflex response to a natural stimulus
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conditioned stimulus CS
A new response to a stimulus
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conditioned response CR
the reflex response to stimulus
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Extinction
When a condition dies out
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Spontaneous recovery
When a condition resurfaces after extinction
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Generalized
the condition response is reproduced that has disappearing suddenly appears again
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discrimination
_ conditions terms_ the condition only occurs when a specific factor is at play
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operant Conditioning
learning caused by consequence of behavior
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Law of effect
behaviors that are followed by rewards
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Punishment
A stimulus weakens behavior that is disapproved of
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reinforcement
a stimulus that strengthens a behavior that approved of
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positive reinforcement
rewards fro good behavior
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negative reinforcement
Punishes bad behavior
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Behavior Shaping
changing behavior thew teaching tactics
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Phobia
The persistent fear of a object or idea e.g. Agoraphobia
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Flooding
treatmentt for phobia the that envlove place a person in the phobia situation
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systematic desensitization
relax the person and then slowly introducing the fear
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Hierarchy of fears
a ranking system for fears
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aversion therapy
a treatment for addiction that make the addict feel a negative reaction to addictive substance
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Primary reinforcement
reward such as food that makes something needed to survive
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secondary reinforcement
a reward that can be used to by a primary reinforcement
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Social influence `
the effect other ideas have on someone
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conformity
a change in idea and behavior because of a pressure groups
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obedience
following the orders of others with authority
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Socialization
the we are raised to behave in public
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Buffer
something that causes distance teacher and learner
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deindaviuation
the state of losing our sense of individuality and becoming less aware of actions
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Anonymous
being able to keep sense of own identity
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mundane realism
an everyday situation that is life-like and is not artificial
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CCTV
closed-circuit television used for surveillance
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social loafing
putting less effort in while in a group
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culture
a group of people who share idaes
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diffusion of responsibility
in a group there is less need to act because someone who i dominate could do something
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Altruism
helping someone with out think even if it has a great cost
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Bystander apathy
doing nothing in an emergency when doing is in need of help
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practical implication
behavior that occurs in the real world
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sex identity
the biological term for a child sex identified through hormones
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gender identity
the psychological term for a child's gender, identified through ideas and behavior's
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phallic stage
third stage of psycodinamic development
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identification
to adopt the attitudes and behaviors of the same sex parents
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oedipus complex
male gender development
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electra complex
female gender development
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gender disturbance
not developing the gender that relates to sex
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modeling
a role model provides an example for the child
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vicarious reinforcement
learning from role model by being rewarded and punished for behavior
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Gender stereotype
believing that gender have certain roles to fro-fill
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gender schema
mental building blocks of gender
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gender roles
behavior seen as masculine or feminine
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highly gender schematized
what is gender appropriate and inappropriate
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aggression
behavior aimed at harming others
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hormones
chemical messengers
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chromosomes
strands of DNA
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thanatos
the part of the unconscious that causes our aggression
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ego defence mechanism
behavior strategies used for protection
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vicarious learning
learning via observation
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PET scan
a way of seeing the working of a brain
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repress
keeping emotion under control
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ADHD
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder
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Ritalin
a drug used to calm
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psychosugery
an operation on the brain to remove a bad part cause behavior interference
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catharsis
the process of getting rid of emotion by watch other experience them
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curvilinear
the relationship that increases in strength to a point but the decreases
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Questionnaire
a set of standard questions about a topic that give to a participant group
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survey
a method for collecting data from large numbers
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closed question
a question with a yes or no response
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open question
a question that can be interpuated
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unambiguous
something that has only one meaning
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interview
a method of collecting data
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interviwee
the person being interviewed
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structured interview
preset questions are asked
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unstructured interview
more random question types
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natural observation
watching the behavior of someone who is in your usual environment
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observational study
a method of collecting data threw watching others
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categories of behavior
the separate action that are recorded as examples of the target behavior
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inter - observer reliability
when this is high the recorder by the one observer in a study are consider to be accurate
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case study
an in depth investigation of an idea
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realtionship
the correlation of a graph
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positve
left to right upwards
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negative
right to left downwards
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no correclation
no disputable pattern
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prediction
statement before an idea
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prediction
statement before an idea
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Memory
unit 1
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Non - verbal communication
unit 1
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personality
unit 1
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stereotypes
unit 1
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research methods
unit 1&2
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learning
unit 2
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social influences
unit 2
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sex gender
unit 2
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aggression
unit 2
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Card 2

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Holding Information In the memory system

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Storage

Card 3

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Recovering Information from storage

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The Idea that information passes through a series of memory stores

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Hold information received from the sense fro a very short period of time

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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