AQA psychology keywords

  • Created by: Bradan_16
  • Created on: 12-03-17 12:39
Changing information so that it can be stored
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Holding Information In the memory system
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Recovering Information from storage
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Multi - Store
The Idea that information passes through a series of memory stores
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Sensory store
Hold information received from the sense fro a very short period of time
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Short - Term memory
Holds approximately seven chunks of information fro a limited time
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Long- Term memory
Holds vast amounts of information for extremely amount of time
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Recency Effect
Information received later is recalled better than earlier
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Primary Effect
The first information received is recalled better than subsequent information
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Reconstructive memory
Altering a memory to make more sense to the person
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Structural Processing
Thinking about the physical appearance of the words to be learnt
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Phonetic processing
Thinking about the sound of a words to be learnt
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Semantic Processing
Thinking about the meaning of word to be learnt
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Levels of Processing
The depth at which information is thought about when trying to learnt
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Things that we have learnt that makes it difficult ti recall other information that we have learnt
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Retroactive interference
When information we have learnt hinders our ability to recall old information
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Proactive interference
When Information we have already learnt hinder our ability to recall new information
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The General setting or environment in which activities happen
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Anterograde amnesia
Being unable to learn and retain new information
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Being unable to recall old information
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A Structure of the brain where memory is stored
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In the Context of Eye wittiness testimonies, the extent to which it can be regarded as accurate
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Leading Question
A question that hint that particular type of answers is required
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Cognitive Interview
A method of questioning witness that involves recreating context of a event
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An oversimplified and generalized idea of a group of people such as The homeless, the stereotypes is there all druggies
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Passing information from one person to another
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Verbal Communication
Communication through words
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Vocal features that accompany speech
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Tone of Voice
the ways word are spoken to convey emotion
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Giving prominence to some words more than others
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inflection in the voice when speaking
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Non-Verbal communication
Conveying information that require the use of words
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Eye Contact
When two People in a conversation are looking at each other at the same time
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Pupil Dilation
When the Pupils The eye expand to look larger
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Practical implications
suggestion about behavior in the real world beyond the research study based upon what psychologist have discovered
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Body language
A general term to describe of non-verbal communication
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The positioning of the body, often regarding as non-verbal communication signal
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Postural Echo
Mirroring and other person body position
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an actor in or stooge who appears to be genuine in a experiment
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Closed Posture
Positioning the body with closed arms
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Open posture
positioning arms so they are not folded
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Personal space
The appropriate distance between people
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Sex difference
Difference in which males and females stand togethor
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Individual difference
Factor that makes one person not the same as another person
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Cultural norms
The range of the behaviour that members of a particular social group or society can be expected to show
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a person rank and position within society
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The thoughts feeling and behaviors that make an individual unique
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the genetic component of personality
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Longitudinal studies
a study over as long period of time
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Monozygotic twins
twins developed from one fertilized egg
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Dizygotic twins
Twins developed from two separate eggs
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Type Theory
personality are thought to be inherited. they can be described
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Easy going and sociable
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A prefer to be in there own company and have a small group of friend
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Highly emotional and anxious with little to no friends
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Personality scale
ways of measuring a person behavior tendinitis
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The 4th dimension of the Eysenck scale
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List different mental disorders and the criteria fro diagnosis
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Part of the brain involved in emotion
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Grey matter
The outer layers of the brain
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Prefontal Context
the very front of the brain involed in social and moral skills
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socioeconomic factors
social and financial that can effect an individual
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newspaper, tv
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role Models
someone who a child looks up to
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View on a group of people that aren't verbalized
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View on a group of people that are acted upon
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Authoritarian personality
People who's personality is prone to prejudice
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F scale
The Questionnaire used by Adorno to measure personalty characteristics
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Robbers Cave
the Name given to sheriffs experiment
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a group of people you believe you have something in common with for fro example your psychology groups
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A group of people whom you believe you have you have nothing in common with.
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Jigsaw method
The name given to the technique used by Aronson to reduce prejudiced
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Expert Groups
Another name fro the jigsaw method
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Seeing, Speaking or writing to someone
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Understanding other feelings ( Psychopath have the inability of empathy )
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An idea that can be tested using The three variables
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factors in experiments
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Independent Variable
The variable in which that resaerch is changed
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the Variable we mesure
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the Variable we keep the same
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a test using the three variables
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An dual Trial experiment
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Order effect
This Occurs when a participant change idea in a second trial
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participant variable
the Variable in which participant are different
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standardized procedures
a set order of events
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Radom Allocation
a Procedure in which a participant is randomly tested
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a Procedure to event out affairs
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Extraeous variable
the Variable that effect depedent variable
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naking sure an experiment is fair
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infomation given during an experiment
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using chance to produce and order for a procedure
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Ecological validity
expeiment that might be seen as unsafe
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not affecting result on person bias
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a person who is selected to take part in an experiment
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a small experiment group
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target population
a large group that reachser wish to study
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the sample group made up of similar people
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a result that can be used on a target population
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Random sample
any member of a group in a small portion
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Opportunity sample
people who are members of the target population
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systematic sample
every nth member of the target population is selected
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starified sample
to obtain this a sample must be of differnt subgroups but from one target population such as indian american but one from any tribe
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Raw Data
the collected idea of a study
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a statistic calculated by adding all the scores up and dividing but the total amount
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the middle value
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a the difference between the highest to lowest value
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Anomalous result
a result that different a noticed pattern
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a proportion of a factor of 100
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ethical issue
points of concern about someone moral right
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A change in behavior due to new experience
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Classic conditioning
a procedure during which an animal or person learns to associate a reflex response with new stimulus
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Classic Conditioning schedule
the steps in the procedure to condition a new response
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unconditional stimulus UCS
a natural response to a stimulus
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unconditional response UCR
the reflex response to a natural stimulus
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conditioned stimulus CS
A new response to a stimulus
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conditioned response CR
the reflex response to stimulus
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When a condition dies out
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Spontaneous recovery
When a condition resurfaces after extinction
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the condition response is reproduced that has disappearing suddenly appears again
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_ conditions terms_ the condition only occurs when a specific factor is at play
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operant Conditioning
learning caused by consequence of behavior
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Law of effect
behaviors that are followed by rewards
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A stimulus weakens behavior that is disapproved of
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a stimulus that strengthens a behavior that approved of
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positive reinforcement
rewards fro good behavior
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negative reinforcement
Punishes bad behavior
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Behavior Shaping
changing behavior thew teaching tactics
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The persistent fear of a object or idea e.g. Agoraphobia
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treatmentt for phobia the that envlove place a person in the phobia situation
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systematic desensitization
relax the person and then slowly introducing the fear
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Hierarchy of fears
a ranking system for fears
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aversion therapy
a treatment for addiction that make the addict feel a negative reaction to addictive substance
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Primary reinforcement
reward such as food that makes something needed to survive
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secondary reinforcement
a reward that can be used to by a primary reinforcement
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Social influence `
the effect other ideas have on someone
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a change in idea and behavior because of a pressure groups
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following the orders of others with authority
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the we are raised to behave in public
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something that causes distance teacher and learner
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the state of losing our sense of individuality and becoming less aware of actions
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being able to keep sense of own identity
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mundane realism
an everyday situation that is life-like and is not artificial
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closed-circuit television used for surveillance
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social loafing
putting less effort in while in a group
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a group of people who share idaes
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diffusion of responsibility
in a group there is less need to act because someone who i dominate could do something
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helping someone with out think even if it has a great cost
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Bystander apathy
doing nothing in an emergency when doing is in need of help
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practical implication
behavior that occurs in the real world
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sex identity
the biological term for a child sex identified through hormones
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gender identity
the psychological term for a child's gender, identified through ideas and behavior's
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phallic stage
third stage of psycodinamic development
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to adopt the attitudes and behaviors of the same sex parents
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oedipus complex
male gender development
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electra complex
female gender development
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gender disturbance
not developing the gender that relates to sex
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a role model provides an example for the child
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vicarious reinforcement
learning from role model by being rewarded and punished for behavior
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Gender stereotype
believing that gender have certain roles to fro-fill
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gender schema
mental building blocks of gender
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gender roles
behavior seen as masculine or feminine
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highly gender schematized
what is gender appropriate and inappropriate
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behavior aimed at harming others
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chemical messengers
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strands of DNA
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the part of the unconscious that causes our aggression
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ego defence mechanism
behavior strategies used for protection
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vicarious learning
learning via observation
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PET scan
a way of seeing the working of a brain
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keeping emotion under control
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder
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a drug used to calm
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an operation on the brain to remove a bad part cause behavior interference
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the process of getting rid of emotion by watch other experience them
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the relationship that increases in strength to a point but the decreases
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a set of standard questions about a topic that give to a participant group
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a method for collecting data from large numbers
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closed question
a question with a yes or no response
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open question
a question that can be interpuated
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something that has only one meaning
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a method of collecting data
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the person being interviewed
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structured interview
preset questions are asked
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unstructured interview
more random question types
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natural observation
watching the behavior of someone who is in your usual environment
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observational study
a method of collecting data threw watching others
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categories of behavior
the separate action that are recorded as examples of the target behavior
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inter - observer reliability
when this is high the recorder by the one observer in a study are consider to be accurate
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case study
an in depth investigation of an idea
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the correlation of a graph
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left to right upwards
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right to left downwards
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no correclation
no disputable pattern
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statement before an idea
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statement before an idea
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unit 1
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Non - verbal communication
unit 1
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unit 1
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unit 1
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research methods
unit 1&2
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unit 2
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social influences
unit 2
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sex gender
unit 2
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unit 2
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Holding Information In the memory system



Card 3


Recovering Information from storage


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Card 4


The Idea that information passes through a series of memory stores


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Hold information received from the sense fro a very short period of time


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