Memory AQA

Comprehensive detail of entire memory chapter for GCSE AQA Psychology, includes all studies and key terms.

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  • Created on: 13-02-14 18:22
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Psychology ­ Unit 1 ­ Memory
Multi-store memory ­ Peterson and Peterson (1959)
Aim: To see if rehearsal is necessary to store information in our short term
memory stores.
Method: Participants were given six triagrams, alongside six three-digit
numbers. They were given their first triagram and were asked to count down
in threes from the number they were given, while trying to remember the
triagram. They were then asked to repeat each triagram after 3,6,9,12,15 and
18 seconds.
Results: Most participants forgot the information after 18 seconds. 80% recall
the triagram at 3 seconds and only 10% recalled the triagram after 18 seconds.
Conclusion: We can't store information in our short-term memory, unless we
rehearse it.
Multi-store memory model (Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968)
Encoding: Changing information so that it can be stored.
Storage: Holding information in the memory system.
Retrieval: Recovering information from storage.

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Murdock (1962)
Aim: To provide evidence for the multi-store explanation of memory.
Method: Experimenter reads out 30 words to the participant, the participant
has to recall as many words as they can, with the experimenter recording this
Results: Participants remembered the first and last words more often than
those in the middle. They called this the primacy and recency effect.…read more

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Wynn and Logie (1998)
Aim: To see if recall of familiar stories changed in the same way that Bartlett
found with unfamiliar stories.
Method: They asked university students to recall details of their first week at
university. They were asked to do this several times throughout the year.
Results: The accuracy of their descriptions remained the same no matter how
many times they were asked to recall the information. This is unlike Bartlett's
participants who changed their stories with every telling.…read more

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This study lacks ecological validity; the method includes a process not
familiar to everyday life.
Extra effort is required for deeper processing, so the extra effort could
be the reason it increases recall.
The Hippocampus:
This part of the brain stores and processes our memories.
It also helps find memories and affects emotions.
The hippocampus helps to encode memories and then helps to find them
when you want to retrieve something.
Retrograde Amnesia: This is the loss of prior memories to the brain damage
occurring.…read more

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Godden and Baddeley (1975)
Aim: To see if people who learn and are tested in the same environment will
recall more information than those who learn and are tested in different
Method: Participants were deep-sea divers. They were divided into four
groups. All four groups were given the same list of words to learn.
Group 1: had to learn underwater and recall underwater.
Group 2: had to learn underwater and recall on the shore.…read more

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Loftus and Palmer (1974)
Aim: To test the effect of leading questions on a person's recall.
Method: First, they split the participants into three groups. All groups
watched a short film of a traffic accident. They were all asked a series of
questions about the film. All the questions were the same for each group apart
from a single question regarding the speed of the car when the accident
happened.…read more

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Bruce and Young (1998)
Aim: To see if familiarity affects the accuracy of identifying faces.
Method: Psychology lecturers were caught on security cameras at the
entrance of a building. Participants were asked to identify the faces seen on the
security camera tape from a series of high quality photographs.
Results: The lecturers' students made more correct identifications than other
students and experiences police officers.
Conclusion: Previous familiarity helps when identifying faces.
Cohen (1981)
Aim: To see if stereotypes can affect memory.…read more


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