AS AQA Psychology - Stress All keywords

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  • Created on: 02-10-12 09:44
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Brain perceives a possible threat, signals are sent to the hypothalamus, signals
SAM Pathway are then sent to the sympathetic nervous system. These impulses are transmitted
(Acute stress) to adrenal medullae which release adrenaline and nor adrenaline into
bloodstream.
Brain perceives a possible threat, signals are sent to the hypothalamus, signals
HPAC Pathway are then sent to the pituitary gland which releases ACTH. This then reaches the
(Chronic Stress) adrenal cortex, where the hormone cortisol is released.
Sympathetic Branch This stimulates an: increased heart rate, pupil dilation, and glucose to be
released.
Parasympathetic Branch This stimulates a: Decreased heart rate, pupil contraction, and glucose to be
restored.
When these are released into the body in can prevent the growth of T cells as it
Corticosteroids shrinks the thymus gland (where the T cells are formed)
This is the shutdown of the immune system, resulting in the body to be more
Immunosuppression susceptible to invasion from antigens.
Willies et al 87
This is when employee's feel they have too much work to do or required to
Work Overload work too fast, work is difficult and requires too much concentration.

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Method
Studied human responses to stress, it was a naturally occurring study ­
examinations. Volunteers.
Kiecolt Glaser Blood samples taken from 75 1st year medical students (49 Males & 29 Females)
samples were taken one month before their final exam and again after the
students had completed their exams (stress samples)
Findings
Natural killer cell activity declined between the two samples, confirming
stress is associated with a reduced immune response
Kiecolt Glaser
Additionally
Volunteers were given questionnaires to asses' psychiatric symptoms.…read more

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Method:
Study was to investigate whether the scores on the (SRRS) Social
Readjustment Rating Scale were correlated with the onset of illness.
2,500 American male sailors were given scale about life events
experiences in the last 6 months.
Records were kept of their health status, and life change unites were
correlated will sailors illness scores.
Holmes & Rahe
Findings:
Positive correlation +0.0118. Indicating that there is a relationship
between LCU's & health.…read more

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There was no relationship between Life events & Health
Evaluation:
Sample age is biased and also. Khan ­ Found that older people tended to
have less severe, and fewer hassles than younger people.
DeLongis Cultural biased
Small sample
Questionnaire: Social desirable answers, might lie, no clarification of
ambiguous questions.
This is when employees feel their skills and abilities are not being fully used
Underload and they become bored and frustrated.…read more

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Aim
Study was to investigate if repetitiveness, machine paced work, and high
levels of responsibility ­ increase stress and stress related illnesses.
Method
High Risk Group ­ 14 Finishers, Swedish saw mill, and their job was to finish
of wood. Job was repetitive, isolated, and machine paced. High
Johansoon et al responsibility, as the whole factories wages was dependant on how good
product was finished.
Low Risk Group - Cleaners, self-paced job with interaction of others
occurring.…read more

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This is where a person Publicly conforms to a groups' behaviour but Privately
Compliance maintaining their own views, this is the weakest form of conformity.
This keyword is: regarded as the change in behaviour due to real or imagined group
Conformity pressure(s).
Is the process by which an individual's attitudes, beliefs or behaviours are modified
Social influence by the presence or actions of others.…read more

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This is based on the desire to be Right; a person may look to others who they
Informational Social Influence believe are Correct and thus give the information about how to behave, particularly
in novel situations or ambiguous ones. Further, in emergence they may yield to
informational influence as they're in panic
Aim
To see if P's would yield to majority social influence and give the incorrect
ASCH answers even though the correct ans were clear.…read more

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Evaluation
ASCH Andocentric
(CONFORMITY STUDY) Cannot generalise, lab experiment, low in ecological validity. However, high control
can establish cause and effect.
College students, also narrows down generalisability.
Cultural biased. USA.…read more

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Findings
65% of Milgram's P's administered the maximum shock (450V)
Meaning that 35% Did not go that far, however still participated
Milgram's German female p's withdrawal
(OBEDIENCE STUDY) P's found experience very distressing once questioned after experiment
Evaluation
Many ethical issues: Deception, protection from harm, and right to withdraw
Internal validity: Critics suggest that p's were just `Going along' with it and giving the
shocks not because of obedience and authority but because they had guessed the
nature of experiment ­ Demand characteristics.…read more

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