AQA History Unit 1 Exam

What were the main aims of Clemenceau at the Paris Peace Conference?
He wanted to completly crush Germany so they would never rise and hurt France again. Therefore, he wanted Alsace-Lorraine returned to France (and the Rhineland) and to disarm Germany.
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What were the main aims of David Lloyd George at the Paris Peace Conference?
To the public he said he would 'Squeeze Germany until their pips squeaked' as he wanted to win the election, but behind closed doors he wished for a fair treaty, so that German trade would recover. He also wished to limit the German Navy and empire.
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What were the main aims of Woodrow Wilson at the Paris Peace Conference?
He also wanted German trade to recover, and also wanted the set up of the League of Nations, alongside his 14 points (which included Self determination and disarmament for Europe).
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What were the territorial terms of the Treaty Of Versailles?
Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France, and the SAAR was given to the league to control for 15 years. The Polish Corridor divided Germany from East Prussia also.
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What were the military restrictions introduced by the Treaty Of Versailles?
The German army was reduced to 100,000 men (With conscription forbidden), and the Navy to 15,000. The battleships were reduced to 6, and the Rhineland was to be demilitarized.
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How did war guilt punish Germany?
It made them feel weak, and humiliated, as they were forced to take the blame for starting the war, when they hadn't- The Treaty was a Diktat. War guilt also meant that reparations could be demanded from Germany.
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How did reparations punish Germany?
They couldn't afford the £6.6 billion, and so led them into hyper-inflation. Germany had also lost the SAAR and colonies, which would have helped them to pay.
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Why did Germany object to the terms of the Treaty?
The Treaty was unfair and forced upon them (A diktat), the military terms also made Germany feel defenseless, and the war guilt humiliated them, leading them to have to pay reparations they couldn't afford.
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What were the strengths of the Treaty?
It allowed the victors to come to a compromise, and defined Europe's borders for years to come, and it also helped set up the league of Nations.
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What were the weaknesses of the Treaty?
It was too harsh, and led to German resentment of the Treaty, and ultimately the rise of Hitler. Clemenceau believed it wasn't harsh enough, but Woodrow and George believed it to be too harsh. Germany also felt the Treaty contradicted the 14 points.
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What/Who was a November Criminal?
Germans who signed the ceasefire in 1918
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Who were the members of the League Of Nations?
Mainly Britain, France, Italy and Japan (The USA didn't join). However membership flucuated, as Japan left after the Manchurian Crisis, and Italy after the Abyssinian Crisis. Germany joined and left, and Russia joined in the 1930's.
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How did the League membership lead to it's failure?
Economical sanctions didn't work, as the USA would continue to trade with them. When Japan and Italy left the league, the league then seemed very European centered, and the league then had no power over them at all.
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How was the League organised to keep the peace?
The council could use economic and Military sanctions on the aggressor. Also, the Permanent Court Of Justice could make a ruling to solve a dispute, and the Assembly (Met once a year) enabled all countries to voice an opinion
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How did the organisation of the league lead to it's failure?
Military sanctions couldn't be used effectively as it didn't have it's own army, it had to rely on the members, who often didn't want to risk their own. Members also had a veto, and the Permanent Court Of Justice had no way to enforce it's decisions.
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What was the Manchurian Crisis (1931-1933)?
Japan invaded Manchuria due to an apparent explosion on the south Manchurian Railway, of which Japan controlled. China appealed to the league, but Japan carried on invading, therefore Japan set up a puppet Government and renamed it Manchukuo.
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Why did the league fail to deal with the Manchurian Crisis?
Economic sanctions failed as they just continued to trade with the USA. Also, Russia was close enough to help, but not in the league, and Lord Lytton took a year to report that Japan was the aggressor, Japan just used it's veto and left the league.
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What was the Abyssinian Crisis (1935-1936)?
Mussolini invaded Abyssinia after a dispute at Wal Wal, the fight was unfair as Italy fought with tanks, but the Abyssinian's with cavalry. The Hoaore-Laval pact was GB and France trying to solve the dispute, giving 2/3 of Abyssinia to Italy.
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Why did the league fail to deal with the Abyssinian crisis?
GB and France didn't close the Suez canal, as they wanted Mussolini on their side against Hitler, and they were self interested, they didn't want to stop trading coal and steel. Weapon sanctions didn't work, and or oil sanctions due to the USA
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Why did the League collapse?
USA was not in the league, so economic sanctions failed. Self interest meant league members didn't want to use military force in Manchuria, and economic sanctions on Italy. The league also looked weak, as the permanent members had veto's/ no army
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What were Hitlers Foreign Policy Aims?
To right the wrongs of the T Of V, to unite German speakers and to gain Lebensraum (living room) in the east (Poland and Russia)
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How did Hitler regain the SAAR (1935)?
As agreed by the treaty, it was returned to Germany after a vote. However, Hitler also used this as propaganda as 90% of people in the SAAR voted to join Germany. This gave Hitler the confidence to remilitarise the Rhineland.
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How did Hitler challenge the military terms of the T Of V?
The Anglo-German naval agreement allowed Germany to have up to 35% of British ships. Hitler also left the League disarmament conference and reintroduced conscription. Hitler did promise not to invade Poland for 10yrs (1934), so he could rearm.
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How did Hitler challenge the T Of V by remilitarising the Rhineland (1936)?
Hitler marched 32,000 troops into the Rhineland.Hitler said it was the most nerve wracking thing he did, as his Military Advisers said against it (they hadn't re-armed yet) and the soldiers were told to turn back if they met French resistance.
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Why was Hitler allowed to break the T Of V by remilitarising the Rhineland?
The league was busy with the Abyssinian Crisis, and Britain believed the Rhineland was Germanys 'Own backyard' as they believed the Treaty was too harsh. France didn't want to act with GB as they were in the middle of an election.
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What were the results of Hitler remilitarising the Rhineland?
It gave him the confidence to push for Anchluss. Mussolini was also impressed and so the Rome-Berlin axis was signed . Also, Hitler position in Germany was strengthened as he proved his advisers wrong.
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How did Hitler challenge the T Of V by Anchluss with Austria (1938?)
There were riots in Austria, Schussnig asked Hitler for help and he told him to place a Nazi as chief of police, and promised a plebiscite (never happened). The riots grew worse, and Schussnig resigned,with the Nazis inviting Hitler in, 99.75% agreed
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Why was Hitler allowed to break the T Of V through Anchluss with Austria (1938)?
Hitler was invited in, as 99/75% of Austrians wanted Anchluss. British feared communism, and so welcomed a strong Germany. GB and France also sympathized as the Austrians were German speaking.
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What were the results of Anchluss with Austria (1938)?
Hitler righted a wrong of the T Of V, without a shot fired. Germany also gained resources (Iron and Steel) and land on 3 sides of Czech. Hitler also proved that the Rome Berlin axis meant Mussolini would not stop him.
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Why did Chamberlain Appease Hitler?
The British were afraid of another war, and they needed to re-arm. The British people were also more afraid of a communist USSR than a strong Germany.
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Why did people like Churchill feel it was wrong to appease Hitler?
Hitler could not be trusted, as he had already broken several promises. It also made Britain look weak to Hitler, and showed that the T Of V had failed completely.
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What was the Sudeten Crisis (1938)?
Hitler wanted the German speaking areas of the Sudetenland, after this was agreed, Hitler demanded it all. Chamberlain then prepared for War, but Hitler invited him for a meeting in Munich.
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What was agreed at Munich (1938)?
Chamberlain, Hitler, Mussolini and Dladier agreed the Sudetenland would become German. GB and Germany also agreed to never go to war, and GB and France agreed to protect Czech.
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How was the Munich agreement (Appeasement) important in causing WW2?
Losing the Czech defenses and 70% of its industry meant the rest could be taken by Hitler. The USSR was also angry that it was consulted, and Germany had gained Armaments and mineral resources.
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Why was the takeover of the rest of Czech important (1939)?
Ended GB's policy of appeasement, and they began to re-arm. Britain and France promised Poland help if it was invaded (they no longer trusted Hitler). Hitler was thern invited in Czech to restore order, which made it difficult for GB to act.
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Why was the role of the USSR important (1939-1939)?
The Nazi-Soviet pact let Hitler to invade Poland, and Russiak didn't stop him. The world was shoced by this non-aggression pact, as Hitler hated communism. WW2 began after Germany invaded Poland and didn't leave, the USSR and Germany splitting it.
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What was responsible for the outbreak of WW2?
Hitlers aggressive policy meant he broke the T Of V, and took over a number of countries, leading to war. GB and France mishandled Hitlers aggression as they felt the treaty was too harsh. The league also failed to solve the problems of the agression
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What are the ideological differences between communism and capitalism?
Communists believe in a one party dictatorship where the state owns everything, and there is no freedom of speech. They believe wealth should be equally shared, but Capitalists believe in freedom of speech and hard work (for money) and free elections
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What did the Capitalists and Communists believe of each other?
Russia believed Capitalists wanted to destroy Communism, but the USA believed Communists wanted to take over the world.
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Why was Yalta important? (Feb 1945)
Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt agreed to divide Germany and Berlin into 4 zones. Stalin also agreed to join the war against Japan. There disputes over Poland, but it was agreed free elections would be held in eastern Europe and Poland=Coalition.
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What happened at Potsdam? (July 1945)
Division of Germany Berlin confirmed. There were arguments over reparations, and it was agreed they would be taken from the zones instead. There was high tension between the leaders as Poland had been forced into communism despite what was agreed
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Why was Potsdam important? (July 1945)
Truman replaced Roosevelt, (very anti-communist) which angered Stalin. Truman didn't share the atom bomb, which angered Stalin. Differences between east and west were intensified due to decisions on control of the zones-led to Berlin blockade.
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How did the dropping of the atom bomb (August 1945) lead to the cold war?
Within 6 months 200,000 had died from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, making USSR afraid of the powerful weapon. The USSR felt they needed to match this, and by 1949 had tested their own. The USSR's changing views of USA changed them from allies to enemys.
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How did Soviet Expansion in the East create tension in the cold war?
Countries like Poland had a coalition Government- but the communists took over anyway. Stalin was trying to create a buffer to prevent further invasion from Germany (Iron Curtain by Churchill) In 1948 Czech became communist when Masaryk was murdered
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Why was the Truman Doctrine important? (1947)
GB couldn't afford to keep fighting Greece to prevent communism, so Truman funded GB troops. He also provided millions to modernize Turkey as it was surrounded by communism. Soviets saw this as the start of the cold war, led to US involvement.
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Why was the Marshall plan important? (1948)
Provided billions in aid to 16 counties at risk of communism, mainly to GB and France. Stalin saw this as a bribe and prevented Eastern European countries applying for aid. Yugoslavia took aid however, and was expelled from Cominform etc
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Why did the Berlin Blockade lead to the Berlin airlift? (1948-1949)
Stalin cut off supplies to West Berlin hoping the USA would abandon it, as Stalin was angry at the co-op between western zones that could lead to Germany becoming independent (and receiving Marshall aid)- Stalin didn't agree
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Why was the Berlin Blockade important? (1948-1949)
It showed the USA was prepared to spent money and risk lives to contain communism. Led to the division of Germany into countries with no possible unification. Led to the formation of NATO also, as the USA felt it needed more European support.
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What was the purpose of NATO?
To help defend Europe against communist expansion, it was a military alliance that allowed countries like the USA and GB to have military bases in vulnerable countries. Included the USA, Canada, France, Holland, and West Germany (1955).
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What was the purpose of the Warsaw Pact? (1955)
Soviets set up a military alliance in response to NATO and the fear when Germany joined. Included Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria and East Germany as they were under Soviet Control. Split Europe into 2 armed camps
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How did the Nuclear Arms Race increase tension in the cold War?
USSR felt threatened by the USA having the atom bomb, and they didn't (Until 1949). USA made more powerful hydrogen bomb in 1952, USSR in 1953. USSR development of Sputnik 1 in 1957 led to fears that rockets could be fired from it, the USA made ICBMs
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What were the key events of the Korean War? (1950-1953)
Communist North Korea invaded capitalist south Korea across the 38th parallel. USA was determined to resist the domino effect, and as the USSR was not attending the UN the USA was able to lead a UN task force to drive the communists out.
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What was the role of MacArthur in the Korean war?
Led the UN troops in landing in the Pusan pocket and drove back the communists all the way to the Chinese Yalu river. He was ready to use nuclear force against the Chinese, and so Truman dismissed him.
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How did the Korean War develop the cold war?
It moved the cold war into the far east and proved Truman was serious about containment. It led to actual fighting between the US and Chines forces with the USSR providing weapons
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How did the death of Stalin lead to a thaw and decrease tension in the cold war? (1953)
Kruschev began de-stalinisation (removing statues, re-naming towns, more consumer goods). Both sides had hydrogen bomb so began to co-op more, eg ending Korean war. He believed in peaceful co-existence, visiting GB and USA, attending conferences
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Why was the Hungarian uprising significant? (1956)
Hungary saw desalinization as an opportunity to demand more freedoms (EG leave warsaw pact) but USSR crushed it with 1000 tanks. The USSR knew free elections could end communism, so Naggy had to be defeated. Kruschev showed peaceful co-existence was
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Why was the Hungarian uprising significant? (1956) Cont.
limited and other countries under Soviet control no longer challenged Soviet authority.
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Card 2


What were the main aims of David Lloyd George at the Paris Peace Conference?


To the public he said he would 'Squeeze Germany until their pips squeaked' as he wanted to win the election, but behind closed doors he wished for a fair treaty, so that German trade would recover. He also wished to limit the German Navy and empire.

Card 3


What were the main aims of Woodrow Wilson at the Paris Peace Conference?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What were the territorial terms of the Treaty Of Versailles?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What were the military restrictions introduced by the Treaty Of Versailles?


Preview of the front of card 5
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