History AQA Notes

havent quite finished the last page on the cold war, but the rest is completed. Its 43 pages long and ALL in bullet points. The parts with purple coloured subtitles i couldnt find in my notes, so you can probably fill yourself.

Hope it helps with revision. Good Luck ***

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Page 1

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History UNIT 2. Section A: 1.From Tsardom to Communism,
1914 - 1924
Why did the rule of the Tsar collapse in February/March 1917?
The govt. of Nicolas II in 1914
Autocracy, no elected government, absolute power
Ministers chosen by Tsar ­ usually his friends, incompetent or corrupt
Only surrounded by…

Page 2

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Food shortages
o Peasants in army, less farmers
o Railway system used to carry supplies rather than food
Coal + Industrial material shortages
o Factories closed
o Unemployment ^^
o Lack of coal = people cold + hungry
Prices^^ Wages ­
Casualties ^^
o Loss of confidence in govt.


Page 3

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The problems facing the Provisional Govt:
Sharing power with the soviets
o Rule Russia until elections
Petrograd Soviet was taking shape 2 same time
o Workers and Soldiers
o Issued ORDER.1 ­ control of armed forces
P.G could only make decisions if P.S agreed…

Page 4

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Anger about war turns to rioting: JULY DAYS. Demonstrators turn to
Bolsheviks to lead them
Lenin accused of being German spy, forced into hiding. Support for
Bolsheviks falls
4. Sept:
General Kornilov marches troops into Petrograd 2 take control ­
fails. The people believe saved by Bolsheviks.
5. October:

Page 5

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Trotsky was a great leader
o Built up Red Army fom nothing,
o introduced conscription for men over 18
o 50,000 experienced Tsarist officers
o Appointed political Commissars 2 each unit
Trotsky V.Courageous
o Special train took him and hand-picked army to most
dangerous areas
Whites lacked good leaders. Commanders…

Page 6

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Portrayed themselves as heroes and part of the people.
o Raised fear about possible return of Tsar.
o Made use of atrocities committed by whites
Consequences of Bolshevik Success
Took control of Russia
Creation of USSR
Lenin died before creation of USSR.
Supervised drawing up of new constitution ­ turned…

Page 7

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Greater stability + general economic situation improved
Some peasants became rich, bough land/animals. Industrial
workers better off.
Progress in repairing old machinery
× Manufactured goods still xpensive ­unwilling to sell grain 4
× Going back to old days
× Made a start w/development ­ but not a huge achievement…

Page 8

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History UNIT 2. Section B: 4. Stalin's Dictatorship: USSR,
To what extent had Stalin become a personal dictator in Communist Russia by
the end of the 1920s?
The death and funeral of Lenin
Stalin attends funeral as chief mourner, makes out to be very close with
Lenin. Tricks…

Page 9

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How their policies differed
"Socialism in One Country"
Communist state in USSR w/o any external aid
Meant no further wars, USSR could concentrate on improving
itself rather than others
Some wanted 2 spread communism ­ could not do so
"Permanent Revolution"
Helping revolutionaries in other countries
Ending NEP…

Page 10

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How did Stalin reinforce his dictatorship in the 1930s?
The control of the Communist Party over the govt.

Constitution of 1936 [By Stalin]
Freedom of speech
Freedom of elections
× Only Commi. Party members allowed to stand in elections
× Only approved newspapers + magazines can be published



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