History AQA Notes

havent quite finished the last page on the cold war, but the rest is completed. Its 43 pages long and ALL in bullet points. The parts with purple coloured subtitles i couldnt find in my notes, so you can probably fill yourself.

Hope it helps with revision. Good Luck ***

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History UNIT 2. Section A: 1.From Tsardom to Communism,
1914 - 1924
Why did the rule of the Tsar collapse in February/March 1917?
The govt. of Nicolas II in 1914
Autocracy, no elected government, absolute power
Ministers chosen by Tsar ­ usually his friends, incompetent or corrupt
Only surrounded by aristocracy
Believed he was chosen by God, all had to obey him
Intimidated by able ministers
Resistance limited under Tsar
Local governors controlled police (could arrest any one who opposed the
Okhrana ­ Tsar's secret police
Army ­ Cossacks, loyal to the Tsar (if rebellion erupted)
The nature of Russian society in 1914
80% population peasants
Poor living standards
Basic Farming , no machinery
People Starving
Newspapers and books censored
The importance of traditional loyalties
The emergence of opposition groups
LIBERALS/CADETS: wanted greater democracy in Russia
SOCIALIST REVOLUTIONARIES: radical movement, aim to hand over large
estates from aristocracy to the peasants. Assassinated 2 govt. officials
and murdered many Okhrana
SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY: followed Karl Marx. Many members had
been executed/exiled to Siberia.
o BOLSHEVIKS: (Lenin) wanted revolution.
o MENSHEVIKS: believed Russia not ready for revolution.
The impact of WW1 on Russia:
Initial Patriotism
Russians applauded the Tsar's decision to enter WW1.
Including workers, peasants and aristocrats.
United in face of common enemy
Steps to The Tsar's Abdication:
1. Effect of War on Soldiers:
Heavily defeated ny Germans
Over 1mil soldiers killed, wounded or taken prisoner
Many died w/o weapons or ammunition or boots
Most blamed their officers ­ were unfeeling and ineffective
2. Effect of War on Russians @ home:

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Page 2

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Food shortages
o Peasants in army, less farmers
o Railway system used to carry supplies rather than food
Coal + Industrial material shortages
o Factories closed
o Unemployment ^^
o Lack of coal = people cold + hungry
Prices^^ Wages ­
Casualties ^^
o Loss of confidence in govt.
3.…read more

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The problems facing the Provisional Govt:
Sharing power with the soviets
o Rule Russia until elections
Petrograd Soviet was taking shape 2 same time
o Workers and Soldiers
o Issued ORDER.1 ­ control of armed forces
P.G could only make decisions if P.…read more

Page 4

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Anger about war turns to rioting: JULY DAYS. Demonstrators turn to
Bolsheviks to lead them
Lenin accused of being German spy, forced into hiding. Support for
Bolsheviks falls
4. Sept:
General Kornilov marches troops into Petrograd 2 take control ­
fails. The people believe saved by Bolsheviks.
5. October:
Bolsheviks, v.popular, win control of Petrograd Soviet + Soviets in
other cities
Lenin persuades Bolsheviks they should seize power
6. November:
Bolsheviks overthrow P.…read more

Page 5

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Trotsky was a great leader
o Built up Red Army fom nothing,
o introduced conscription for men over 18
o 50,000 experienced Tsarist officers
o Appointed political Commissars 2 each unit
Trotsky V.Courageous
o Special train took him and hand-picked army to most
dangerous areas
Whites lacked good leaders. Commanders cruel, set bad example, treated
men w/disrespect
Generals did not co-ordinate attacks, did not trust each other
Had in-fighting in armies (b/c had dif.…read more

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Portrayed themselves as heroes and part of the people.
o Raised fear about possible return of Tsar.
o Made use of atrocities committed by whites
Consequences of Bolshevik Success
Took control of Russia
Creation of USSR
Lenin died before creation of USSR.…read more

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Greater stability + general economic situation improved
Some peasants became rich, bough land/animals. Industrial
workers better off.
Progress in repairing old machinery
× Manufactured goods still xpensive ­unwilling to sell grain 4
× Going back to old days
× Made a start w/development ­ but not a huge achievement
Roles and achievements of Lenin
Headed revolution of Bolsheviks (great revolutionary thinker)
Gained support for Bolsheviks
Ruthless (got rid of Assembly)
Controller ­ put Trotsky in right positions (i.e.…read more

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History UNIT 2. Section B: 4. Stalin's Dictatorship: USSR,
To what extent had Stalin become a personal dictator in Communist Russia by
the end of the 1920s?
The death and funeral of Lenin
Stalin attends funeral as chief mourner, makes out to be very close with
Lenin. Tricks Trotsky into not coming
Lenin's Testament
Lenin stated that Stalin should not become leader, but rather, Trotsky
become the successor.
However, was not published as contained many criticisms of other
leading communists.…read more

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How their policies differed
"Socialism in One Country"
Communist state in USSR w/o any external aid
Meant no further wars, USSR could concentrate on improving
itself rather than others
Some wanted 2 spread communism ­ could not do so
"Permanent Revolution"
Helping revolutionaries in other countries
Ending NEP
Bringing in more socialist ways of running country
Satisfied extremist communists
BUT Russians happier w/NEP
Communist Rule in the later 1920s
Govt.…read more

Page 10

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How did Stalin reinforce his dictatorship in the 1930s?
The control of the Communist Party over the govt.
Constitution of 1936 [By Stalin]
Freedom of speech
Freedom of elections
× Only Commi.…read more


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