Animal Behaviour

5.4.3 Animal Behaviour

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Innate Behaviour
Does not have to be learned; inherited; instinctive; stereotyped
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Advantages of Innate Behaviour
Avoid danger; prevents climbing animals from falling; helps find food; suits species with a short lifespan
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Examples of Innate Behaviour
Suckling; the grip reflex in mammals
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Taxes
Movement in a specific direction; directed by stimulus e.g. light or food; +ve = towards; -ve = away
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Example of Taxes
Woodlice move away from a bright light
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Kinesis
Rate of movement/turning linked to intensity of stimulus, not direction; Orthokinesis: speed; Klinokineses: turning
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Example of Kinesis
Woodlice move quickly in dry conditions but will slow down when they move into humid conditions
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Reflex Action
Rapid response; Automatic/thought not required; Stereotypical/innate/genetic
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Advantages of Reflex Actions
Involves fewer neurones than usual pathways; Response to life threatening stimuli
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Examples of Reflex Actions
Humans-withdrawal of hand from hot object; A cat’s foreleg jerks back when its paw touches a hot radiator; Earthworms withdraw underground in response to vibrations
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Learned Behaviour
Acquired during lifetime; Behaviour altered by experience; Reinforced through practice; Variable
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Advantages of Learned Behaviour
Adaptable to environment; Learn to avoid harmful environments/ predators
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Habituation
Animals learn to ignore certain stimuli; Repeated exposure to the stimulus results in neither a reward or punishment; Short term or long term
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Advantages of Habituation
When the animal realises there is no threat, they do not waste energy retreating; Less stress
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Examples of Habituation
Touching a sea anemone will cause it to withdraw its tentacles. After repeated touch the anemone will no longer withdraw its tentacles.
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Imprinting
Learning occurs early in life (sensitive periods); Young animal forms more or less permanent attachment with a larger moving object
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Examples of Imprinting
Lorenz and his goslings
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Classical Conditioning
Innate response is conditioned behaviour; No reward or punishment of behaviour; Two stimuli (unrelated); Repeated exposure to both stimuli, eventually animal will respond to unrelated with normal response
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Advantages of Classical Conditioning
Passive; Involuntary
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Operant Conditioning
One stimulus; Reward reinforcement; Trial and error-initially accidental; Correct response becomes more common over time; Animal learns to carry out behaviour; Results in a reward
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Advantages of Operant Conditioning
Active; Voluntary
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Latent Behaviour
Learn associations without explicit reinforcement; To acquire understanding of spatial relationships of objects; Formation of ‘cognitive maps’ of surroundings
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Advantages of Latent Behaviour
Can recall food sources
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Examples of Latent Behaviour
Hummingbirds and bees recall the location of harvesting of flower resources
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Insight Learning
Thought and reasoning in mammals; Problem solving; Uses previously learnt behaviour; Trial and error
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Examples of Insight Learning
Chimps will stack crates; Use method to reach bananas out of their reach;Problem solving; Use previous behaviour (stacking crates);In new situation (food not in reach); Trial and error
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Avoid danger; prevents climbing animals from falling; helps find food; suits species with a short lifespan

Back

Advantages of Innate Behaviour

Card 3

Front

Suckling; the grip reflex in mammals

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Movement in a specific direction; directed by stimulus e.g. light or food; +ve = towards; -ve = away

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Woodlice move away from a bright light

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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