9. The Black Power movement and African Americans

  • Created by: Alasdair
  • Created on: 07-06-17 22:23
Malcolm X
Became leading member of Nation of Islam and argued for pride in AA heritage and rejected idea of relying on white support to gain rights.
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Unlike King he did not focus so much on social and economic change. He spoke for poor AAs in North and stressed distinctive nature of A heritage, rather than integration.
Malcolm X
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Rejected non-violence and believed in self-defence. By 1960 he had become well-known and influential figure.
Malcolm X
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In 1963 he was dismissed from Nation of Islam and after travelling in Africa & Asia came to believe more in co-operating with mainstream civil rights movement.
Malcolm X
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Assassinated by members of Nation of Islam in 1965, before effects of this change could be felt.
Malcolm X
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Ideas of Malcolm X in opposing over-reliance of civil rights movement on white support.
Black Power Movement derived from number of different ideas and trends
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Anti-colonialism theories and example of African nationalists in forming new independent nations
Black Power Movement derived from number of different ideas and trends
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Interest in previous separatist movements like Marcus Garvey's
Black Power Movement derived from number of different ideas and trends
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Disappointment with effects of political changes and wave of riots in 1965
Black Power Movement derived from number of different ideas and trends
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Black Power did not have unified aims and it did not focus on either co-operation with white progressives or achievement of political goals
Differences from civil rights movement
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It was made up of various groups and individuals and focused on different way of thinking about progress AAs
Differences from civil rights movement
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It did not have much of base in South, but spread throughout USA and even influenced other countries, e.g. Jamaica, Britain
Differences from civil rights movement
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Did not focus on non-violence and perceived need for AAs to be prepared to defend themselves with weapons.
Differences from civil rights movement
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It rejected co-operation with white Americans, who were not included in many of its groups and activities
Differences from civil rights movement
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It saw AA civil rights in wider context of African history and culture
Differences from civil rights movement
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Black Power's impact was not in terms of gaining political concession but in spreading wider consciousness of black culture and heritage.
Gains
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There was greater interest in AA history, music, distinctive dress and appearance
Gains
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Courses were run on AA culture in schools and universities
Gains
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There were powerful new ideas of aesthetics - term 'black is beautiful' became linked to 'afro' hairstyles and move away from trying to copy WAs' dress and appearance
Gains
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There was greater publicity for social grievances and inequalities and considerable publicity for new confidence in AA identity. In 1968 at Mexico City Olympics, two AA athletes gave Black Power salute of a raised fist
Gains
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At local level there were communities and groups to promote AA rights and economic activities, and in 1972 national Black Political Convention was held to urge reform
Gains
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Shift from conventional politics to 'identity politics' introduced new type of democratic discussion, which impacted on range of other issues such as gay rights and second-wave feminism
Gains
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Division between WAs and AAs increased and led to fears and repression, which weakened impact of movement and its ability to make changes.
Limitations
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Association of civil rights with separatism, violence and radicalism alienated moderate opinion and weakened support for further extension of civil rights.
Limitations
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In 1967 Martin Luther King was critical of movement's failure ti see progress depends on interracial co-operation
Limitations
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Power of US state was too great and considerable amount of police repression was used against radical leaders
Limitations
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By mid-1970s movement had ceased to exist. Diversity of aims was weakness and lack of central organisation meant groups broke away from any organised central movement
Limitations
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Card 2

Front

Malcolm X

Back

Unlike King he did not focus so much on social and economic change. He spoke for poor AAs in North and stressed distinctive nature of A heritage, rather than integration.

Card 3

Front

Malcolm X

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Malcolm X

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Malcolm X

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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