Key Civil Rights Activism Groups

  • Created by: lwilson23
  • Created on: 25-01-19 11:17

The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)

- founded by JAMES FARMER in 1942, with the aim of advancing the rights of black Americans, the end goal being the abolition of the Jim Crow laws

- inspired by Ghandi's methods, protest was never violent - with key means of rebellion being boycotts, pickets, marches and sit-ins. 

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NAACP

- the National Association for the Adavncement of Colored People

- founded in 1909 by W.E.B DU BOIS, MOORFIELD STOREY and MARY OVINGTON - with the group being led by ROY WILKINS in the 1960s

- strove for the advancement of black legal rights, which they guaranteed through winning court-cases for African-Americans. 

- interestingly, two of the founders, (Storey and Ovington) were white

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Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

- formed by MLK in 1957, with the philosophy of EQUALITY for all races in the US. 

- aimed to do this by ending segregation and promoting black voting rights

- these goals were achieved using methods such as boycotts, sit-ins, marches, speeches/gatherings and more importantly a PASSIVE response to violence, generated sympathy.

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Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

- formed by ELLA BARKER in 1960, taken over and made more radical (had ideals of black power) by STOKELY CARMICHAEL in 1966

- formed as a breakaway from the SCLC, as Barker believed them to be 'out of touch' with the black youth of America, therefore the SNCC focussed on the education of black youths, more importantly encouraging them to vote (especially in the massively racist south of America). 

- under Barker the movement was peaceful, with the group having large roles in events such as the freedom rides and MLK's march on Washington. 

- Carmichael became tired of the oppression blacks were facing in America, drawing attention to the injustices faced by African-Americans in the inner cities especially, focussing on the aims of black self-reliance and not being afraid to use violence if it was in self-defense. 

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The Black Panther Party

- formed by HUEY NEWTON in 1966, when the black power movement was just beginning. Reached its peak by 1968, when the movement had 2000 members. 

- formed as a response to police brutality against blacks, members would don black berets and leather jackets and take to the streets, patrolling them for signs of police injustice and interfering with violence if necessary. 

- alongside these violent escapades, they also put out a TEN POINT PROGRAM, which had the aims of increasing black representation in government, ending police brutality and giving fair housing, education and justice to all. 

- intimidated people and due to this most likely impacted the CRM in a negative fashion. 

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The Nation of Islam

- formed in 1930, led from 1934 by Elijah Muhammad, the NOI was a BLACK NATIONALIST MOVEMENT who believed in black domination over whites. 

- set out in society to promote black supremacy, a message which was spread by influential leaders such as Malcolm X, who was recruited by them whilst imprisoned in 1946 at the age of twenty one. 

- they would often belittle the non-violent protest of MLK, instead choosing to have speeches and demonstrations encouraging blacks to rise up against their white oppressors. 

- it was this group that assassinated Malcolm X in 1965

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