1.7 Political and Social problems 1890-1929

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What were some of the consequences of the post war depression?
Bad trade within Europe, negative feeling of the public, high income tax (war provision), lots of unemployment and so bosses could easily get employees - reduced wages and rights of workers
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What was the Red Scare and when did it begin?
A series of strikes and bombings that led to many Americans to fear that their country was on the verge of revolution, began in 1919
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What was the major factor of the Red Scare?
Economic slump
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How many workers had the strike spread to by January 1919?
100,000 workers
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When did the Boston police strike begin and what happened?
It began in September 1919, and it consisted of nights of looting
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How did the public and Wilson think of the Boston police strike?
They didn't support the strike as they thought it was unamerican and led by communists, Wilson called it "a crime against civilisation"
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How many steelworkers were on strike by September 1919 and why?
350,000 workers because they wanted better working conditions and recognition of their union the AFL
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How many strikes and workers were involved during the strike wave?
3,600 strikes including 4 million workers
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How could the bosses afford this amount of strikes?
They were rich and could hold out as they had support from the police, courts, government and the US public
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When did the bombings begin?
April 1919
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What happened in June 1919 in regards to bombings?
Bombs went off at the same time in 8 different cities
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What happened in November 1919 within the House of Representatives?
They refused to let Victor Berger take his Milwaukee seat because of his left wing views, even though he stood for re-election and won, in NY state legislature expelled its socialist members
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What were the Palmer raids, when did they begin and who started them?
They were organised raids against radicals in 33 cities, it was between November 1919 and January 1920, it was started by Mitchell Palmer (Attorney General) and Edgar Hoover ( new head of FBI)
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Who were Sacco and Vanzetti and what happened to them?
They were Italian immigrants who were convicted in 1920 purely on circumstantial evidence, and investigation in 1927 said the trial was biased but S+V were found guilty and executed
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When did the Red Scare end?
Summer 1920
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What did happened on the 14th April 1922?
The Wall Street Journal reported a secret arrangement when Albert Fall ( Secretary of the Interior) had leased the naval petroleum reserve at Teapot dome in Wyoming to a private oil company owned by Harry Sinclair
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How did the Teapot scandal effect the government?
It created a bad image of the government
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What did the Red Scare encourage?
Anti-immigration feelings
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How many immigrants came to the US from 1890-1920?
18 million
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How many new arrivals were there in 1921 alone?
1.2 million
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What did the Immigration Act do and when was it introduced?
limited immigration from Europe to approximately 358,000 and it was introduced in 1921
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What did the Johnson Reed Act do and when was it introduced?
It limited the immigration from Europe to approximately 164,000 and was introduced in 1924
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What did the Oriental Exclusion Act do and when was it introduced?
Banned all immigrants from Asia and was introduced in 1924
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What did the National Origins Act do and when was it introduced?
Limited European immigrants to 150,000 and was brought in in 1929
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How much did immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe decline in the 1920s?
70%
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Why did the populations of the US increase?
Due to high birth rate not immigration
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Give an example of antisemitism in the US during the 1920s?
Henry Ford had his car dealers give out copies of 'the Protocols of Learned elders of Zion' claiming there was an international conspiracy by Jews to take over the world
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When was the KKK resurrected and by who?
1915 by William J Simmons
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What were the activities of the KKK?
burning crosses, rallies, pressurising employers to fire black employees, beatings and lynchings - they targeted groups they though were inferior
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Why did the KKK grow?
Backlash of immigration, community/ safety of businesses, economic slump in 1919-20, social changes and modern marketing techniques
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What did the Butler Act do and when was it brought in?
It prohibited schools from teaching any theory that denied the story of the 'divine creation of man'
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Who was John Scopes and what happened at his 'Monkey Trial'?
He agreed to teach Darwin's theory of evolution, found guilty and fined $100, but in the public's mind he won as the fundamentalists looked ignorant of science
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Card 2

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What was the Red Scare and when did it begin?

Back

A series of strikes and bombings that led to many Americans to fear that their country was on the verge of revolution, began in 1919

Card 3

Front

What was the major factor of the Red Scare?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How many workers had the strike spread to by January 1919?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When did the Boston police strike begin and what happened?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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