09. Break from Rome, annulment and marriage to Anne Boleyn. 08

What was 1529-1531 known as?
'Years without a policy'
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Who was appointed as Chancellor 1529?
Thomas More
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What returned in 1529?
Councilor government
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Who were Henry's 3 most senior advisors in
The Duke of Norfolk, Duke of Suffolk, Anne Boleyn's father
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Provide evidence to show More was a strong humanist
Wrote Utopia 1516
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Who was he sympathetic to?
Catherine of Aragon
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Although More wasn't reforms what did he criticise?
Catholic corruption
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What 2 things was More intolerant about in terms of reformers?
hearsay and Lutheranism
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Provide an example of his intolerance to hearsay and Lutheranism
persecuted and exeuted religious reformers 1530-31
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In what way was he different to Wolsey in terms of religion?
No pragmatic ( no flexible in beliefs)
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Provide evidence that shows Henry's strong support for catholicism in the 1520s
He opposed Lutherism and wrote a book defending the pope and the catholic church
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Thus, what did the pope do?
Awarded Henry with the title of defender of the faith ( Fidei Defensor).
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However, what made Henry change his
position on the Church?
Henry was frustrated with the failure to secure the annulment from Catherine due to the obstruction of the Pope’s and was more open to ideas of reform.
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Who brought Reformism England to Henry's attention?
Anne Boleyn
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How did she Bring it to henry's attention?
She brought William Tyndale’s book to Henry’s attention
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What did Tyndale argue that may have appealed to Henry?
Tyndale argued royal authority was supreme above any other power.
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1529-1531 what gained support at court?
Refromist ideas
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Why was this good for the Boleyn faction and why did they support reformist ideas?
were keen to secure Anne’s marriage and their position at court, the Boleyn’s chaplain Thomas Cranmer was also a reformist sympathizer.
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How was Cromwell involved in government pre-1529?
Carried out work for Wolsey
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When was Cromwell elected as an MP and attacked corruption in the Church?
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When was Cromwell effectively in control of the Annulment (following the fall of Moore & Wolsey?
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What were Cromwell and his role and title 1532-1536?
Chief Minister and a key figure behind break with Rome and reformation
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What did Cromwell suggest that wasn't hearsay but still so monumental?
Break from Rome and the monarch being head of the church
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Even though this would enable Henry to grant his annulment, why was little progression made until 1532?
Henry was reluctant
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In what 2 ways did Henry pressurize the pope and the English Clergy for an annulment/ support it?
Appointing Crammner as Archbishop of Canterbury and legitimizing his moves through the Acts of parliament (as advised by Cromwell)
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Who was Cramner?
Connections to the Boleyns, political servent before a churchman, moderate reformist ideas
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When did Cramner authorize the annulment?
After the 1533 Act of restraint of appeals
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When did Henry accuse the entire English clergy of praemunire?
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What amount of money was did Henry agree to pardon them for along with their recognition that he was the Supreme Head of the English Church?
£32 million
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What other thing put pressure on the clergy and the pope in 1532?
Thomas Cramner as the new Archbishop of Canterbury
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When was the Act of Restraint of Annates passed?
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What was The Act if restraint of Annates?
preventing the payment of church taxes to Rome. Instead, they would be paid to the monarch. It was hoped this would pressurize the Pope into granting the annulment.
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What was the Submission of the Clergy that Henry forced the church to sign 1533?
This was the is acceptance that the law of the Church would depend on the will of the monarch.
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When was the Act of First Fruits and Tenths?
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What was the Act of First Fruits and Tenths?
taxes on church incomes was paid to the monarch, not the pope
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When was Anne Boleyn Pregnant?
JAN 1533
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Why did Parliament hastily pass the Act of Restraint of Appeals Feb 1533?
So the divorce hearings would be held in England and Catherine could not appeal to Rome. anne was also pregneant
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What was the Act of Restraint of Appeals Feb 1533?
Made it illegal to appeal to the pope and the final authority on all legal matters was the monarchs
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When was the new divorce hearing that was arranged by Cramner?
May 1533
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How long did the New divorce hearing last until a decision was made?
3 days
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What was the result of the New divorce hearing?
stated the marriage between Henry and Catherine had been invalid all along and that through no fault of their own Henry and Catherine had been illegally married. Henry and Anne’s marriage was therefore valid as Henry was a single man who had every right t
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When was Elizabeth born?
June 1553
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What and when made Henry the Supreme Head of the English Church?
1534 the Act of Supremacy
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What did The act of Sumprpemcy legally acknowledge in terms of the monarch?
had the power to decide its organization, personnel, and doctrine.
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Until 1536 what were all changes to religion?
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Position of the Church 1509-1529
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Describe the status in general of the church
Was very powerful and influential especially since everyone was a member of the catholic church. it had few weakness and criticisms
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Long Term anti-clericalism
Simony, pluralism and non-residence, objectification to the clergy's privileges poorly educated priests, selling of indulgences
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What is Simony?
Possible to buy a post within the church
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How did the crown use Simony?
For rewarding in secular (non-religious matters)
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Provide an example of pluralism and non-residence
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What is Canon Law?
the law of the church that can be different to the law of the English common law
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What is the selling of indulgences?
You could buy documents form the pope 'cancelling' punishment in purgatory
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Name 2 individuals who called for the education of parish priests because some weren't literate?
humanists like Erasmus and Colet
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Name the case study that servery damage the church's reputation and angered many?
death of Richard Hunne 1514
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Why did the church initially have a grudge against Hunne?
Because he refused to pay a fee for his son's funeral
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What was he?
A London merchant
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What did the case put?
The English court against the Churches court
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What did Bishops of London men 'find' when raided Hunne's home?
a Heretical bible
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When Hunne was in St pauls prison what did they find in his cell?
that he had been murdered
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Who found the church not guilty?
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Evangelicals and calls for the church reform 1509-29
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What do evangelicals mean?
Those questioning the chuch
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When did Martin Luther criticise catholicism?
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How many theses did he nail to the church door in Wittenburg?
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However at this stage what was Luther not trying to do?
Create a new religion
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How did the ideas spread?
through the printing press
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What people were mainly exposed to the reformist ideas although this was small scale?
Mostly English southern merchants and traders through trade
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Who and when was the first English Bible illegally printed?
William Tyndale 1526
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Henry and Wolsey response
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Provide an example of Henry being very critical towards Luther?
When in 1521 he wrote a book condemning Luther and defending the pope thus, the pope rewarded him with the title 'defender of the faith'
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provide an example of Wolsey strongly opposing reformist ideas?
Suspected sympathizers at universities were punished and arrested
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How many heads of monasteries did Wolsey sack for being corrupt and unsuitable?
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What did Wolsey want to do to the clergy?
create a more educated clergy such as setting up a school in Ipswich although this never happened
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SHow evidence is that Wolsey supported the church gaining wealth and power even though it was corrupt?
He was himself guilty of pluralism and non-residence
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Card 2


Who was appointed as Chancellor 1529?


Thomas More

Card 3


What returned in 1529?


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Card 4


Who were Henry's 3 most senior advisors in


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Provide evidence to show More was a strong humanist


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