Henry VIII's Government

  • Created by: shannon01
  • Created on: 04-05-19 15:46
Conciliar Government (1509-14).
HVIII inherited this Government from his father, HVII. Came to an end when Wolsey came to power.
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Wolsey.
Wolsey became the Chancellor of England in 1515, and his main priorities were the legal system, the formulation of domestic policy and political decision-making. He was also Legate a Latere- representative of Pope.
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Wolsey- Court of Chancery (CoC).
As Lord Chancellor, Wolsey had the right to oversee the Chancery (main court of equity)...used to uphold 'fair' justice, e.g. dealing with problems with enclosure. Wolsey heard 7,526 cases. JOHN GUY -> Wolsey’s impact on the CoC was limited.
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Wolsey- Court of Star Chamber (CoSC).
It was established by HVII in an Act of Parliament in 1487. Wolsey’s most distinctive legal contribution (he was President of it). It heard 1,685 cases of alleged misconduct by people who were dominant in their localities… root out corruption.
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Wolsey- 'Tudor Subsidy'.
Typically, taxpayers paid extraordinary revenue when it was needed (in the form of subsidies). However, Wolsey reformed this by setting up a national committee which was headed by himself (rather than local commissioners).... better for revenue.
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Wolsey- 1523 Subsidy.
The 1523 Subsidy was debated by Parliament, as Wolsey asked for £800,000 to pay for the War in France. Its collection was spread over two years, but only £150,000 was collected- shows Wolsey’s bad management of Parliament.
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Wolsey- 'Amicable Grant' (AG) 1525.
The money raised from the 1523 Subsidy was not enough to pay for the war with France. Therefore Wolsey attempted to raise ‘unparliamentary’ taxation in the AG...led to widespread resistance (especially in East-Anglia, where 20,000 men gathered).
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Wolsey- Eltham Ordinances (EO) 1526.
Wolsey introduced the EO to reform the finances of the Privy Council. He wanted to reduce the number of GotPC (12 to 6 men)... a way to reduce royal household expenditure. The Groom of the Stool (Compton) was replaced by Henry Norris
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Historiography of Eltham Ordinances 1526.
PETER GWYN-> argued that the reasons for the EO was purely financial, as many servants were removed, not only the GotPC. STARKEY -> the EO reflected Wolsey’s fear after the AG, as he thought he’d lose his political influence.
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The Fall of Wolsey.
Wolsey failed to solve the 'Kings Great Matter' (annulment). In May 1527, he bought HVIII before a fake court to ‘accuse’ him of living in sin, which he accepted. CoA refused to accept this, and- in accordance to canon law- appealed to the Pope.
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The Fall of Wolsey continued.
In 15th June 1529, Cardinal Campeggio was sent to London by the Pope, but he refused to give HVIII his annulment. This sealed Wolsey's fate, and in October 1529, Wolsey was sentence to death. He died on the 29th November 1529 at Leicester Abbey.
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Conciliar Government (1529-32).
Cromwell brought it to an end with his proposal to enable HVIII to get his annulment: a break from Rome, and making HVIII himself the Head of the Church of England.
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Influence of Anne Boleyn.
AB became pregnant in December 1932, and Thomas Cranmer married AB and HVIII in January 1533… seen as invalid by the Catholic Church. Later that year, the marriage of CoA and HVIII was annulled by Cranmer.
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Cromwell: Establishing the Basis for Divorce from Catherine of Aragon.
The divorce was accomplished as statute law was shown to be superior over canon law (supported by Christopher St. German in 1528). The Collectanea Satis Copiosa (written by Cranmer and Foxe) justified HVIII’s annulment.
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Cromwell: 1531- Clergy accused of praemunire.
Praemunire is the offence of asserting or maintaining papal jurisdiction in England. Therefore the Clergy were fined. Also meant they had to acknowledged HVIII as SHoftEC.
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Cromwell: 1532- Act in Conditional Restraint of Annates.
Designed to increase pressure on papacy by withholding revenue (taxes) normally paid to the Pope annually.
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Cromwell: 1532- the Formal Submission of the Clergy to HVIII.
This was the surrender of the Church’s independent law-making function (as well as resignation of Sir Thomas More)... showed royal supremacy.
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Cromwell: April 1533- the Act in Restraint of Appeals.
This showed that the Monarch had imperial jurisdiction so appeals could not be made to Rome, e.g. CoA could not appeal to Rome in regards to the annulment. Evidence to support it in the Collectanea…
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Cromwell: March 1534- Act to Stop Peter’s Pence.
This abolished the payment of taxation to Rome, and also prohibited the selling of Papal dispensations in England.
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Cromwell: April 1534- Act of Succession.
This declared HVIII marriage to CoA invalid, and Mary as illegitimate. Led to the Oath of Succession.
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Cromwell: November 1534- Act of Supremacy.
Provided legislative proof of royal supremacy… declared HVIII the ‘Supreme Head of the Church of England’ and enforced the BwR. Had to take the Oath of Supremacy.
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Cromwell: November 1534- Treason Act.
Made it treasonable (punishable by death) to not take the Oath of Supremacy. Sir Thomas More was executed under this Act.
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Cromwell: November 1534- The Act Annexing First Fruits and Tenths to the Crown.
This meant the annates (typically paid to Rome) were instead paid to HVIII.
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The Fall of Cromwell.
Similarly to Wolsey, Cromwell failed to manage HVIII’s marital problems… arranged HVIII’s marriage to Anne of Cleves (Protestant Princess within the HRE), but it ended in an annulment. In a Council meeting, Cromwell was accused of treason and heresy
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Political Rivalries, and the death of Henry VIII.
When HVIII’s death neared, political rivalries intensified, as whoever was closest to HVIII when he died was likely to be dominant in the reign of Edward VI. Edward Seymour was high on this list.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Wolsey became the Chancellor of England in 1515, and his main priorities were the legal system, the formulation of domestic policy and political decision-making. He was also Legate a Latere- representative of Pope.

Back

Wolsey.

Card 3

Front

As Lord Chancellor, Wolsey had the right to oversee the Chancery (main court of equity)...used to uphold 'fair' justice, e.g. dealing with problems with enclosure. Wolsey heard 7,526 cases. JOHN GUY -> Wolsey’s impact on the CoC was limited.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

It was established by HVII in an Act of Parliament in 1487. Wolsey’s most distinctive legal contribution (he was President of it). It heard 1,685 cases of alleged misconduct by people who were dominant in their localities… root out corruption.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Typically, taxpayers paid extraordinary revenue when it was needed (in the form of subsidies). However, Wolsey reformed this by setting up a national committee which was headed by himself (rather than local commissioners).... better for revenue.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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