What had been achieved by landmark stages of the Civil Rights Movement?

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Position of blacks at the end of the Reconstruction

1. Some improvements made in education and federal aid (by the Freed Mans Bureau - homes, food, schools, hospitals).

however improvements negated by:

1. Determined opposition

2. Increasing Apathy --> caused in part by the depression

3. Unsympathetic Supreme Court, that became a democratic majority in 1874


1. blacks oppressed by the Black Codes = prevented voting, giving testimony, marrying whites, restricted freedom of movement (eg. in Louisiana there was a 10pm curfew), and occupational choice

2. Southern caste system was perpetuated by Sharecropping, leaving blacks in poverty trap

What had been achieved by 1920?

1. Race riots became an regular feature of American life

2. The Great Migration increased Back voters, however, the only options blacks could ever vote for was Republicans, as by definition Democrats were opposed to their rights

3. Blacks in the North received better education, albeit vocational.... although there was an increase in black professionals e.g. teachers, business professionals (but very small increase)

4. The few black professionals there were - Booker T Washington, WEB du Bois were role models of what blacks could achieve

5. Black codes limit the freedom of those in the South, and upheld the Southern caste system: Blacks were poor, prevented from getting unskilled jobs by Trade Unions - most were sharecroppers, both housing and education were poor

The standard of Living for blacks was slightly improved by the fact that blacks in the South could own their own land (20% increase)

6. Establishment of the NAACP led to a few successes, but more importantly made Civil Rights a


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