Emancipation Proclamation and Civil Rights Act
- Issued by Abraham Lincoln
- 1st January 1863
- It declared all slaves free from their masters and gave basic human rights.
- The first of civil rights acts was delivered in 1866 asserting African Americans as citizens of United States.
Civil Rights Act
- Introduced in 1875
- Equal rights were applied to public areas
- Imposed to suppress the rise of formal segregation in southern states
1887-1891 and after
- The Jim Crow laws develop during this period
- These laws enforced segregation of races on trains and in waiting facilities
- They then extended to public places of all kinds like schools, shops and parks etc...
Plessy v. Ferguson
- Landmark decision made by the Supreme Court
- It stated that racial segregation constitutional
- This case led to widespread of the Jim Crow laws in the South
- It continued to be an obstacle to desegregation
Brown v. Board of Education
- Thurgood Marshall backed Linda Brown.
- The court ruled racial segregation in schools, unconstitutional.
- This was a turning point in the civil rights movement and the first rejection of the P v. F case which allowed segregation to continue until now.
Browder v. Gayle
- Responded to the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
- It was favourable to black Americans as it ruled segregation on buses, unconstitutional with similar reasoning to the Linda Brown case.
- Finally a hole had been made in the strict policy which was a triumph for African Americans.
Civil Rights/ Voting Rights Act
- The first was issued by Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964.
- It was possibly a response to MLK's speech in Washington ('63).
- It prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, gender, religion or national origin and banned exclusion from restaurants, stores and other public places.
- Voting was made easier for Southern blacks as they no longer had to take unfair literacy tests to register ('65).
1968, and 1969: Affirmative Action
- Johnson signs an act which prohibited discrimination in sale, rental and financing of housing.
- This was an important step since blacks suffered economically and socially.
- In 1969 Nixon continues affirmative action which made allowances for the lack opportunity for African Americans. It extended the attempts of the Fair Employment Practices Commission which prevented discrimination in jobs.
- Only downside it perhaps overlooked the lack of educational qualifications.
- This policy forced desegregation in schools of the south by transporting children to areas outside their locality to achieve better race mix.
- Radical method to force integration.