was the period from 1960-68 a turning point?

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  • 1960-1968
    • 1960 SNCC and sit-ins
      • 1st February, 1960, Greensboro, North Carolina - Four Afriican American students from a local college entered a branch of Woolworths and ordered food and drink at the 'whites only' counter- they stayed there all day and returned the next day with 23 others and then 80 the day after that. They had to close on the 6th Febuary.
        • The sit-ins succeeded in getting a number of public facilities desegragated. In particular lunch counters. By the end of 1961, 810 towns and cities had desegregated public areas
    • 1961 CORE and Freedom Rides
      • Organised by Farmer and CORE - They planned to travel the whole distance between Washington DC and New Orleans. They knew if they were attacked it would be publicised. Attacked at Rock Hill where the bus was overturned and they were refused in local hospitals.
    • 1963 Events in Birmingham
      • Worst attack was in Birmingham city where under bull conor there was no protection.
    • 1963 March on washington
      • 250,000 marched on washington. They marched for 'jobs and freddom' indicating concern for black economic conditions as well as issues for segregation. However, King emphasied freedom instead of jobs.
    • 1964 Civil Rights Act
      • Lyndon B. Johnson used Kennedy's death to get the civil rights legislation through congress. He exploited the shocked mood of the American people, and in addition possessed great powers of persuation. He managed to persude some republicans to vote for the bull. He also managed to achieve a statement issued by all living ex presidents in support of the principle.There were southern attempts to try and stop the bill but it was passed.
    • 1964-5 Selma Voting Rights Campaign
      • On 25 March 1965, Martin Luther King led thousands of nonviolent demonstrators to the steps of the capitol in Montgomery, Alabama, after a 5-day, 54-mile march from Selma, Alabama, where local African Americans, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) had been campaigning for voting rights.
    • 1964 Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
      • The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) was an American political party created in the state of Mississippi in 1964, during the civil rights movement. It was organized by African Americans from Mississippi, with assistance from the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), to challenge the legitimacy of the then-white-only Mississippi Democratic Party.
    • 1965 Voting Rights Act
      • The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits discrimination in voting.It was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson during the height of the American Civil Rights Movement on August 6, 1965, and Congress later amended the Act five times to expand its protections
    • Role of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King
      • Martin Luther King = Good orator for peace. Malcolm X encouraged the Black Power Movement
    • Rise of Black Power and Black Panthers
      • Heavily influenced by the ideas of Malcolm X and rejected non violent methods. MLK seen as the 'tool of the white man'
    • Divisions in the movement
      • There were divisions because of what they wanted. E.g some people followed MLKs peaceful approach and others followed Malcolm Xs more radical one.
    • LA riots and poverty in Northern ghettos
      • The years 1965-1968 saw widespread violence in many American vities with substantial African American populations.
    • Assasinations
      • Martin Luther King and JFK


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