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Organisations that helped or
hindered the N.A. Civil Rights
Movement…read more

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Indian Rights Association
Founded in 1882
Run by proud Christian Americans (white)
Devoted to assimilating Native Americans
Washington DC became base for lobbying Congress
Concerned for well being of American Indians but didn't
understand their culture and lifestyle
It was quite influential in formation of Indian Policy in
1930s
Could be considered as patronising the North American
population…read more

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Society of American Indians
50 education Native American men and women joined
to form this group in 1911
This was the first attempt (significant) of N.As at
establishing inter-tribal pressure group which
campaigned for educational improvements and better
healthcare
Had limited impact because it lacked funding to
challenge discrimination in court
Support also lacked
There wasn't a united vision for the future of N.As
Collapsed in 1920s…read more

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American Indian Defense Association
Created in 1923
Response to prohibition of traditional, ritual dances, the
Pueblos performed. The `Dance Order' was perceived to
be an attack on civil and religious rights
AIDA would protect rights to land, beliefs, culture,
traditions and arts/crafts
John Collier was the executive secretary
Successful in blocking the Bursum and Leavitt Bills…read more

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National Congress of American Indians
NCAI was founded in 1944 by educated N.As
It recognised it needed to bring reform by uniting in
protest
Worked through the courts similarly to NAACP (A.A.
Rights), challenging discrimination in employment,
education etc...
Seen as the beginning of a protest movement where
tribes pursued justice together…read more

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