- Explain how a sand spit is formed. [Higher 6 marks]
Answer: Spits are long ridges of sand and shingle with one end attached to the land and the other ending in the open sea. For example – Spurn Head on the Yorkshire coast. A spit will form when sand and shingle are carried along a coast by longshore drift. This is when waves approach a beach at an oblique angle, break and transport material up the beach but the backwash returns to sea at a right angle to the coast. Material is therefore gradually transported along the beach in the direction of the dominant wind. If there is a bay or a bend in the coastline, deposition of sand and shingle will continue to be deposited away from the coast in the open sea. This will build up in time to form a long ridge, a spit; sometimes winds and currents may curve the spit.
2. Using one or more examples, describe the human responses to coastal erosion. [6 marks]
Answer: There are two main approaches to coastal erosion, hard and…