geography paper 2

uplands and lowlands
there are three rock types
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made from magma (granite)
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compressed sediment (clay, chalk, limestone)
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igneous or sedimentary rock changed by heat or pressure (shale into slate)
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uk is split into two halves geologically
top half is mostly igneous and metamorphic rocks this forms upland landscpes
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bottom half is mainly sedimentary rocks these are characteristics of lowland landscapes
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ice presses down on the landscape and eroded it in distinctive ways
chalk and clay landscapes
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chalk is strong and permeable - water moves through it, it forms cliffs when it occurs at coastlines
chalk is only found in lowland Britain
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chalk is weak and impermeable - water cannont move through it
clay is found all over Britain, clay landscapes are typically wide, flat plains with lots of lakes, streams and rivers
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igneous and metamorphic rocks
grainte is hard and resistant to erosion, but it susceptible to chemical weathering
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grainte is impermeable and granite landscapes are badly drained - boggy
tors are feautures of some granite landscapes; towers of granite chemically weathered into blocks
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metamorphic rocks are very strong and very resistant to erosion and weathering
slate is formed from clay, layers in the original clay form weak planes in the slate
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schists are formed from shale, the word schist originally meant `to split`, schist rocks split easily
human activity
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is planting, managing and caring for forests for different purposes such as nature conservation, landscaping, recreation and timber production
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many UK upland landscpes have been planted with trees, sometimes there are in straight rows to make forestry processes easier to manage
the UK would naturally be covered by deciduous woodland, however some UK landscapes feauture conifer plantations which have been planted for tiber production and are very distinctive
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grew up where the landscape offered particular advantages
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river meander loops made good defensive locations
natural harbours were sites for fishing villages
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shallow points of rivers were used as fords
springs gave people reliable fresh water
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as settlements grew the settlements took over the landscape, in big cities many streams and small rivers now run in tunnels underground
geology of coasts
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soft rock e.g. clay : soft rock is easily eroded by the sea cliffs will be less rugged and less steep than hard rock coasts, soft rock landscapes includes bays
hard rock e.g. granite : hard rock is resistant to all types of erosion, cliffs will be high and steep and rugged, hard rock landscapes include wave cut platforms and headlands where caves arches and stacks are formed
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joints and faults : joints are small crocks in rocks,and faults are larger cracks in rocks, both make rok more susceptible to erosion, rocks with more joints and faults are eroded more quickly than rocks with fewer joints and faults
rates of erosion: other factors
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geological structure e.g. if soft rocks and hard rocks occur together
`wave climate` - how powerful waves are, wave direction, wave height, fetch (how far winds travel over open water)
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local currents and tidal ranges (the difference in height between low and high tides)
groundwater levels - saturated cliffs (high groundwater) are more vulnerable
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concordant and discordant coasts
concordant coasts are made up of the smae rock type, parallel to the sea, on discordant coasts the rock type alternates in layers perpendicular to the sea, forming headlands and bays
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how waves erode the coast
in a destructive wave the swash is weak and the backwash is strong which means material is dragged back down a beach into the sea
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hydraulic action: the sheer weight and impact of water against the coastine, particularly during a storm, will erode the coast, also waves compress air in cracks in the rocks forcing them apart and weakening the rock
abrasion: breaking waves throw sand and pebbles (or boulders) against the coast during storms
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attrition: the rocks and pebbles carried by the waves rub together and break down into smaller pieces
solution: chemical action by seawater on some rocks, especially limestone
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impact of UK climate on costal erosion
the four seasons have different impacts on costal erosion, e.g. cold temperatures in winter lead to freeze thaw weathering in cliffs
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prevailing winds in the UK are from the south-west bringing warm, moist air from the Atlantic and frequent rainfall, leading to weathering and mass movement on the coast
prevailing winds (south westerly)
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strom frequency is high in many parts of the UK, so coasts are often subject to strong winds leading to an increase in the eroding power of waves and aslo leading to heavy rainfall contributing to mass movement
sub-aerial processes
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mechanical weathering
freeze thaw- most common in cold climates, when it freezes water in cracks in the rocks expands, over time the crack widens and pieces of rocks fall off, it is most effective when the temperature frequently rises above and falls below 0 degrees
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biological weathering
caused by plants and anmals and its action speeds up mechanical or chemical weathering e.g. trees roots widen gaps in rocks
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chemical weathering
happens when the rocks mineral composition is changed, granite contains feldspar which converts to soft clay minerals as a result of a chemical reaction with water
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limestone is dissolved by carbonation, CO2 in the atmosphere combines with rainwater to form carbonic acid which changes calcium carbonate (limestone) into calcium bicarbonate, this is carried away by water in solution
mass movement
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the downhill movement of material under the infulence of gravity, the different types of mass movements depends on: material involved, amount of water in the material, the nature of the movement e.g. falls, slips or rotational slides
slumps happen when the rock (often clay) is saturted with water and slides down a curved slip plane
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sliding happens when loosened rocks and soil suddenly tumbles down the slope, blocks of material might all slide together
costal erosion leads to costal retreat when the coastline moves further inland
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transportation and deposition
longshore dift process
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1. waves approach the coast at an angle
2. swash pushes the sand and gravel up the beach at same angle
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3. bashwash carries sand and gravel back down the beach at 90` to the coastline under the force of gravity
4. sand and gravel move along the beach in a zigzag fashion
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5. sand is loghter than gravel so moves further up the beach
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traction - large boulders are rolled along the sea bed by waves
saltation - smaller stones are bounced aong the sea bed
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suspension - sand and small particles are carried along in the flow
solution - some minerals are dissolved in seawater and carried along in the flow
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deposition - a constructive wave
the load carried by waves is deposited by constructive waves, different actors infulence deposition e.g. sheltered spots (bays), cal conditions, gentle gradient offshore causing friction all reduce the waves energy
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landscape of deposition
curved beaches are formed by waves refracting or bending as they enter a bay
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beaches can be sandy or pebbly, shingle beaches are often found where cliffs are being eroded and where waves are powerful, ridges in a beach parallel to the sea are called berms and the one highest up the beach shows where the highest tide reaches
spits are narrow projections of sand or shingle that are attached to the land at one end, they extend across a bay or estuary or where the coastline changes direction, they are formed by longshore drift powered by a strong prevailing wind
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bars form in the same way as spits with lonshore drift depositing material way from the coast until a long ridge is built up however bars grow right across this bay cutting off the water to form a lagoon
human impact on coasts
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the eight of buildings increases cliff vulnerability, changes in drainage increase satuation, raises interests in prtecting coastal landscapes
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can cause/increase air, soil, water and noise pollution, can destroy natural habitats for birds, animals andsea life, brings wealth and jobs to an area
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increased soil erosion, increased sedimentation, wildlife habitats may be created and preserved
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coastal management
can increase erosion further along the coastline, helps reduce risk of costal flooding, some salt marshes, sand dunes, sand ars and sits are preserved and protected
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coasts attract tourists for relaxing on beaches, swimming and water sports as well as enjoying the beautiful landscape, the effects can be diverse
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increased development for hotels and campsites impacts on natural processes e.g. increasing/decreasing costal erosion, transportation and deposition and mass movement
increased pollution e.g. litterning, noise, traffic fumes
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increased revenue benefits people living there
increased dsire to protect and preserve landscape so tourism continues
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costal flooding
climate change
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as atmospheric temperature rises, it is likely that storm frequency and strength will increase, this can increase the height and strength of waves reaching the coast (especially when combined with high tides)
an increase in heavy rainfall and wind will also increase weathering and mass movement on the coast
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as sea temperature increases the water expands so sea levels rise, the melting of ice on land also adds to the water in the ocean, rising sea levels put low-lying costal land at increased risk of flooding
the effects of climate change on the costal enviroment
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erosion may increase so some beaches may disappar, depositional feautures such as spits and bars may be submerged or destroyed, natural ecosystems (e.g. Essex marshes) and habitats may be destroyed, erosion may increase adding to costal retreat
impacts of increased risk of flooding on people
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flooding associated with storm surges can put people at risk of injury and death
psychological impacts of loosing or potentially loosing homes and livelihoods
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settlements either need to be moved or defended both of which will be expensive
costal tourism may diminish in some areas if beaches or other landscapes are lost
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flooding of roads and damage to railways will make travel more difficult
loss of agricultural land will affect food protection and the economy
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costal management
hard engineering
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sea walls - protectscliffs, expenisve
groynes - prevent sea removing sand, exposes other areas of coastline
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soft engineering
beach replenishment - sand reduces waves energy and maintains tourism, expensive
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slope stabilisation - reduces slippage, foot of cliff still needs protection from the waves
intergrated costal zone management
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do nothing - cheaper than taking action, homes and land are loss
hold the line - existing shoreline maintained, expensive
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strategic realignment - people and activities ove inland, unpopular with local residents
investigating coasts: working with data
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scattergraphs: only show relationships between two variables; inappropriate for more than two
pie charts: lots of small segments make the chart difficult to interpret
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chloropleth maps; hide varitations within areas; give an impression of boundraries between areas instead of gradual transitions
triangular graphs: data must be in %
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bar graphys: do not show relationships between categories
coclusions and summaries - the job of the conclusuion is to use evidence from the investigation to answer the key questionor hypothesis
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analysing data
1. descibe what you see: what are the overall patterns or main feautures? , are any figures or feautures in groups? , what about anomalies or exceptions?
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2. use evidence - precise nubers or facts from the data - in your analysis
3. give reasons for the patternsyou see in the data
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4. link these reasons to geographical concepts/theories if you can
river systems
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upper course
gradient = steep
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discharge = small
depth = shallow
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channel shape = narrow, steep sides
velocity = quite fast
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valley shape = steep sides
features = waterfalls,interlocking spurs
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middle course
gradient = less steep
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discharge = large
depth = deeper
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channel shape = flat, steep sides
velocity = fast
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velley shape = flat, steep sides
feautures = meanders floodplain
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lower course
gradient = shallow gradient
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discharge = very large
depth = deep
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channel shape =flat floor, gently sloping sides
velocity = very fast
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valley shape = flat, gently sloping slides
feautures = meanders, floodplain,levees, ox-bow lakes
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erosion, transportation and deposition
hydraulic action - the force of the water on the bed andbanks of the river removes material
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attrition - the load that is carried by the river bumps together and wears down into smaller smoothe pieces
abrasion - material carried by the river rubs against the bed and banks and wears them away
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solution - some rocks minerals dissolve in river water e.g. calcium carbonate in limestone
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traction - large boulders roll along the river bed
saltation - saller pebbles are bounced along the river bed picked up and then dropped as the flow of the river changes
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suspension - finer sands and silt particles are carried along in the flow giving the river a brown appearance
solution - minerals from rocks such as limestone and chalk are dissolved in the water and carried in the flow although they cannot be seen
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when the river looses energy (slows down) it may drop some of its load, this is called deposition
interlocking spurs -the river at it source is small and has limited energy, it flows naturally from side to side around ridges in the valley sides, called spurs. the sprus become interlocking with those on the other side of the valley
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meanders - bends in the rivers course, in the lower course the river uses up surplus energy by swinging one way and the other causing lateral erosion on the outside of bends and deposition on the inside. On the inside of the bend the current is slow
on the outside of the bend the current is faster = erosion
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ox-bow lakes
1. a meander 2, the neck narrows 3, an ox-bow lake
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as the river floods over its bank, the water slows down, the water cant carry the biggest and heaviest silt particles and they are dropped straight away on the bank forming floodplains
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increased deposition on the river bed whentheriver is low gradually raises the river bed upwards
after and floods the deposits on the bank build up forming levees
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the speed of a river decreases as it approaches the sea and it deposits most of the material it has been carrying, over time sediment builds up to create an almost flat area of new land which is the delta
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impacts of climate on river landscapes and sediment load
erosion rate is greater where discharge and energy of river are greater so rivers in wet climates erode more material than those in dry climates, impacting on the shape of the river valley and amount of sediment
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discharge of river = volume of water flowing through river channel in a given time
transportation rate is greater where energy of water is greater - so rivers in wet climates transport more material than those in dry climates
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weathering of rocks is greater in some climates, for example freeze-thaw weathering is most likely where temperatures frequently move from just above to just below freezing
amount of discharge is affected by climate, wetter climates = greater discharge, hotter climates = greater evapouration so less discharge, the greater the discharge the higher the transportation rate of the river
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slope process
1. particles of soil slowly move down the sides of valleys under the influence of gravity
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2. valley sides are eroded by the river making the sides steeper and increasing the downward movement of material, heavy rainfall can trigger this movement
rivers flowing over resistant rock tend to have steep sides, rivers flowing over less resistant rock tend to have a gentle slope
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storm hydrographs
a flood hydrography (or storm hydrography) shows how a river responds to a storm
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lag time
is the difference in time between the peak of the rainstorm and the peak of the river discharge
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line graph
shows the river discharge, measured in metres cubed per second (m3/s)
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bar graphs
show the amount of rainfall, measured in millimetres (mm)
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shows the time in hours
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human activities contributing to flooding
urbanisation, land-use change, deforestation, building on floodplains
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physical factors that make the lag time short, the rising and falling limbs teep,and discharge high on storm hydrographs include...
geology - more resistant rock will absorb less water than the less resistant rock so run-off will be greater and faster
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soil type - as with geology more impermeable soils (clay) will absorb less water than permeable rock (sandy soils) so run-off will be greater and faster. the amount of soil also has an impact
vegetation - plants use water so run off will be greater and faster on ground with less vegetation
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slope - steeper slopes cause faster surface run off so more water reaches the river more quickly than on gentler slopes
drainage basin shape - a wide basin with a lot of tributaries close together means water entres the river quickly making the rising limb steeper and lag time shorter
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antecedent conditions - when the ground is already saturated with water, further rain flows as run-off straight into the river
climate change
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increasing frequency of storms - more periods of heavy, intense rainfall meaning more water flowing into the river and increasing antecedent conditions
increasing periods of hot, dry weather - bakes the soil so when it does rain the water runs off the surface as it cant soak in
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increasing periods of extreme cold - freezes the soil so water runs off the surface as it cant soak in
threats of flooding to people
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damage to homes, death and injury to people, damage to freshwater and electricity supplies
threats of flooding to the enviroment
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damage to wildlife and habitats, death of and injury to animals and fish, pollution damaging the land if sewage and chemicals are in the floodwater
managing flood risks - hard engineering
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embankments and levees - use natural materials so blend in with surroundings, may burst, causing widespread flooding
flood walls - require minimal maitenance, block the view of the river
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dams and reservoirs - able to regulate and control the flow of water, very expensive to build
flood barriers - can be moved to where needed and quickly erected, dont provide long lasting protection
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managing flood risks - soft engineering
river restoration - can reduce flooding downstream, people living there may not want land use to change
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washlands - resticts economic development
floodplains retention - provides somewhere for floodwater to go, attractive and provides space for lesiure and recreation, restricts economic development
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plant trees (afforestation) - increased infiltration, not suitable for all locations
investigating rivers ; working with data
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presentation disadvantages
scatter graphs - can only show relationships between two variables
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pie charts - lots of small segments make the chart difficult to interpret
chloropleth maps - hide variations within areas
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triangular graphs - data must be in %
bar graphs - do not show relationships between categories
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analysing data
1. describe what you see: what are the overall patterns or main feautures? are any figures of features groups? what about anomalies or exceptions?
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2. use evidence - precise numbers or facts from the data - in your analysis
3. give reasons for the patterns you see in the data
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4. link these reasons to geographical concepts/theories if you can
urban and rural UK
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rural settlements - in the UK settlements with fewer than 10000 inhabitants (fewer than 3000 in Scotland)
conurbation - when a city has expanded outwards and absorbed smaller settlements that used to be separate
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urban core - the central part of a conurbation: high population density
population density - the number of people per square kilometre
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economic differences
there are more pople wokring in the primary sector in rural areas: agriculture, forestry and fishing
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many of the people who live in rural areas work in urban areas
rural settlements have lower average wages than urban cores
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UK and EU policies
the EUs Eurpean regional development fund - £2.6 billion (england). the EU invests in businesses in poorer regions to help them grow
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enterprise zones - tax cuts to attract businesses to specific regions plus superfast broadband
the UK and migration
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immigration and age structure - most immigrants are young and therefore more likely to have children. this influences the UK age structure
international migration to the UK
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in 1961, 3% of people living in the UK were born in another country
in 2015 13% of UK residents were born in another country
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in 2015 8 million people born outside of the UK lived here
in 2015 UK net immigration (difference between those immigrating and those emigrating) was estimated 336000
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immigration policy
current (2016) uk government policy is to reduce the level of net migration to 1000000 peopleper year
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however while the UK is a member of the european economic area (eea) the government cannot restrict the movement of EEA citizens to the uk
this means the uks policy is to make immigration by non EU people more difficult
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the decline of the coal industry
in 2015 the last deep coal mine was closed, although coal is still an important fuel in the UK it is much cheaper to import it from other countries than use coal mined in the UK
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where coal pits have closed down new service industries have grown up such as warehousing, however wages in these industries are much lower than the coal miners had been able to earn previously
globalisation - the process by which trade and investment build more and more connections between countries
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FDI (foreign direct investment) - when people in onecountry invest in businesses in another country to the extent that they gain significant contro over how those businesses are run
TNC (transnational corporations) - businesses run from one country that have control over ennterprise in other countries
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why FDI in the uk increased?
globalisation is strong in banking and finance becausemoney can be movedelectronically around the world London is a global centre for finance
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trade deals with developed and emerging countries make imports and exports chaper and easier and create UK jobs
the EU encourages free trade between member states and sets up good trade deals for the whole EU with other countries
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UK governments ahve encouraged FDI by privatising industries and allowing foreign companies to buy them
role of TNCs
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investment - foreign companies have invested £1 trillion in the UK creating thousands of jobs
innovation - foreign companies bring new technology
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security - economic propblems abroad can mean production gets shut down in the UK: job losses
competition - TNCs can outcompete UK companies due to the TNCs massive economies of scale
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urban change differences
different models have been developed to explain urban change
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1. new arrivals to the city move to the cheapest areas in the inner city
2. more established residents of the city move to the suburbs where housing is more expensive but living conditions are better
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industry and hosing often develop along main roads and rail lines - this causes the wedges
deprivation - not having access to the same resources and opportunities as other people
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index of multiple deprivation (IMD) - scores a small area across the whole UK for a range of different measurements, all the areas are ranked from 1 the most deprived in the UK to 32482 the least deprived area
city change and migration
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in 2011 42% of Birminghams population was from an ethnic minority population many from Pakistan and India, people now come to Birmingham from many places and for many reasons, new arrivals can feel more at home among communities
40% of Birmingham residents live in areas descibed as among the most deprived 10% in England
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


made from magma (granite)



Card 3


compressed sediment (clay, chalk, limestone)


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Card 4


igneous or sedimentary rock changed by heat or pressure (shale into slate)


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


top half is mostly igneous and metamorphic rocks this forms upland landscpes


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