Case studies for Edexcel B Unit Seven Oceans on the Edge, Geography

Case studies you need to know for Edexcel B geography Unit Seven Oceans on the Edge

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Oceans on the Edge
Soufriere Marine Management
In 1992 the St Lucia Department of Fisheries brought the following people together; the
local town, local hotel owners, water-taxis, dive businesses, fisherman, marine managers.
They went out in boats and cruised along the coast, discussing how coastal zoning could
work.
The Soufriere Marine Management Area developed from this.
Overall they have been successful as a model of sustainability. But there have been
problems.
It is very difficult to get stakeholders with so many different interests to agree.
For example, establishing a marine conservation area means part of it has to be a no-go area
for fishermen.
The fishing community became angry seeing divers in the conservation area. They didn't
believe that a conservation area would help to conserve future fish stock.
Local people had to be trained and educated to manage the scheme.
The rangers who police the area had to be equipped, and this costs money. Fees from divers
and yacht owners now make the scheme self-funding.
However there are some problems; the area has become so popular that the marine
environment is threatened by mass tourism, rapid development is Soufriere encourages
siltation and pollution.
But on the positive side; the numbers, sizes and diversity of fish species have increased and
many stake holders are now involved in marine conservation.
St Lucia's Success Story
In 1986 in St Lucia, 19 areas were declared Marine Reserve Areas.
These included coral reefs, turtle breeding grounds and mangroves. Fishing priority areas
were also created.
However the boundaries were never fully defined, so conflict arose.
St Lucia needed protection because it is a volcanic island with most of its population
concentrated along narrow coastal plains. Land based damage of the ocean is therefore
likely. The population is rising at about 2% a year.
St Lucia's continental shelf is narrow, which leads to overfishing. Most fishermen are
subsistence fishermen and their methods of fishing can be very harmful to the reefs.
St Lucia's tourist industry has rapidly increased, leading to a problem of waste disposal and
pollution. Tourism provides have the income for St Lucia.
More tourists have led to more snorkelling, diving and yachting.
20% of people live below the poverty line. Many of them have no jobs and they harvest
mangroves for charcoal, hunt wildlife and catch fish, putting pressure on local resources.

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