1) ROLE OF EDUCATION & ECONOMY
CONSENSUS PERSPECTIVES (FUNCTIONALISTS – EMILE DURKHEIM)
1) teaches skills needed in work and economy 2) sifts and sorts people into their appropriate job roles - allocation 3) plays a part in secondary socialisation
· Positive aspects of school going,Durkheim noted the importance of education in preventing anomie (state of chaos) also emphasized the role of subjects such as History for teaching the students heritage, integration and solidarity.
· Teaches children to interact outside their families. Durkheim said families use affective relationships society is based in instrumental relationships. Children’s experiences with adults become increasingly formal. Parsonsdeveloped this idea, saying children gain achieved status through education; also school rules acclimatised children to universalistic standards. Parsons also argued that education instils values of competition, equality and individualism. All help to function a capitalist society.
(MARXISTS and FEMINISTS)
1) prepares children for work 2) justifies inequality 3)ruling class ideology that supports capitalism
· Education operates as an ideological tool, manipulating people to think certain ways to legitimise exploitation by the ruling class and inequality.
· Schools render the proletariat passive and resigned to their fate. Louis Althusser argued that education operates as an ideological apparatus, therefore hidden curriculum transmits values such as obedience and respect for authority.
· Bowles and Gintis (1976) school mirrors the workplace (correspondence principle) prepares children to fit with their exploited future by the proletariat. Use strict hierarchy, share the same values (punctuality), external rewards (grades/money) and fragmentation and alienation in both (individuals are split by forms subjects etc)
· Feminists argue that education legitimises inequalities – maintain the ways in which boys and girls are treated sends subtle messages. All creating a patriachal society
2) TEACHER-STUDENT INTERACTIONS
Hargreaves, Hester & Mellor (1975)
3 stages of labelling:
Speculation - guessing about the student
Elaboration - test the hypothesis
Stabilisation - the hypothesis solidify
Rosenthal & Jacobsen (1968)
IQ tests to students from California, a random 20% were told they had high IQ's. the tests were then done after a year and these 20% had improved considerably more than others. also looked at teacher reports and grades.
both of these approaches to differences in achievement do not consider other factors such as class etc.
3) Student Subcultures
interviewed inner-city boys in secondary modern. they formed as a response to negative labelling, attach prestige to disrupting lessons.
Willis's Lads (1978)
w/c boys made subcultures because of their limited opportunities - self-defeating properties - disengage from education and consequentally under-achieve
Culturally Biased - ethnocentric curriculum, benefits m/c white students
work place help - hierachy (student to headteacher), rewards (grades and money)
these should be taught as part of the actual curriculum not as a subconscious counter-part.
4) Patterns of Achievement
SOCIAL CLASS & ETHNICITY
poorer w/c children more likely to underachieve for example Afro-Caribbean had 23% of 5 good GCSEs in 1996 whereas Indian's in 1996 gained 48% of 5 good grades at GCSE level.…