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Researching pupils:
Power and status
Children have less power than adults; may struggle to get opinion across (group interviews may help to overcome this
issue)
Ability
Lack language, self expression skills and confidence ­ cannot express abstract concepts and ideas needed in
research
Vulnerable
Need consent and know what the…

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To discover cause-and-effect relationships, we divide the sample into two groups:
1. Experimental group: may manipulate the variables to measure for any change
2. Control group: keep variables constant and measure any change

LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS:
Favoured by POSITIVISTS
Control over experiments means they can be replicated, improving reliability
Identify and…

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Preparing to conduct a survey:
Questionnaires or interviews

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Closed-ended or open-ended questions
1. Choosing a topic:
Must choose appropriate/suitable method for investigation
2. Formulating an aim/hypothesis:
Formulate a hypothesis ­ a general statement of what a sociologist intends to study and hopes to achieve
Gives direction to research ­ can gather evidence to try and support claim
3.…

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Postal, email, or completed in person and collected on the spot.

Favoured by POSITIVISTS
Standardised questions and answers produce reliable data ­ can be replicated
Pre-coded responses allow us to produce quantitative data, identify and measure behaviour patterns and establish
cause-and-effect relationships
Large scale, tend to be more representative

Advantages…

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Structured interviews:
Favoured by POSITIVISTS
Standardised questions and answers produce reliable data ­ can be replicated
Pre-coded responses allow us to produce quantitative data, identify and measure behaviour patterns, and establish
cause-and-effect relationships
Large scale and often more representative
Practical issues
Relatively cheap to train interviewers
Structured interviews can cover…

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(e.g: Labov ­ studied language of American black importance and probe further with an appropriate
children and by adapting an informal style, they line of questioning ­ adds to cost
opened up and spoke more freely) Representativeness
Interviewee's view Smaller numbers because of time element means
Given opportunity to speak…

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Conducting a participant observation study:
1.Getting in
Must first gain entry to group
Initial contact may depend on numerous factors
Patrick got into the Glasgow gang because he looked young and knew one of the members
Researchers must gain trust and acceptance
Role ideally should not disrupt the groups normal…

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Gain more of a valid picture of people's actions and Time consuming ­ limits number that can be carried
way of life out
Insight Representativeness
Verstehen = understanding comes from putting The group is usually small and selected haphazardly ­
yourself in another person's place e.g by a chance encounter.…

Comments

Duzii

In the 'interviews' section, the second subheading needs to be changed to 'unstructured', as it says 'structured' and lists information on the exact opposite. Otherwise, this is perfect!

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