Pathogens are bacteria or viruses that cause the production of diseases.
Antigens are molecules that are identified as non-self or 'foreign' found on the surface of a cell.
The immune system carries out a immune response in where the pathogens are destroyed.
There are two types of reponses by the immune system which are:
- Non-specific response- where the invading pathogens are destroyed
- Specific response- where directed at specific pathogens
Non Specific response
There are a number of barriers that prevent the entry of pathogens such as:
- Physical barriers (e.g skin, and reflexes such as sneezing)
- Chemical barriers (e.g lysozymes within eyes, stomach acid)
These are enzymes that kill bacteria by breaking down and destroying the cell wall (done through hydrolysis of the polysaccharide cell wall)
Damaged white blood cells and other cells in the…