Biology Immunology

Immunology

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Non-specific immune response -Inflammation -Phagoc

1. Inflammation

  • The damaged white blood cells and mast cells release histamine, they cause arterioles to dilate increasing the blood supply to certain areas.
  • This causes the holes to open between the endothelial cell in the capillary walls.
  • Causing swelling(odema) 
  • This will let the monocytes and neutrophils into the infected area, they engulf and destroy the foreign bodies and pathogens.
  • The immune system destroys the pathogen.

2. Phagocytosis

  • During this process the pathogen will be engulfed and destroyed.
  • The Phagocyte (Macrophage) recognises the antigens on the pathogen.
  • The cytoplasm of the phagocyte moves around the pathogen, engulfing it by endocytosis. 
  • The pathogen is in the phagocytic vacuole inside the cytoplasm of the phagocyte.
  • Lysosomes fuse with the vacuole, hydrolytic enzymes breaking down pathogen and digesting it.
  • The phagocyte will then present pathogen's antigens. Which will stick the antigens on its surface to activate the immune system cells.
  • This is called APC (Antigen-Presenting Cell).
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Non-specific immune response -Interferon

Its a protein made when the cells are infected with viruses. 

Interferons help stop the virus spreading to other cells it does this in different ways:

  • It will block RNA synthesis so replication is inhibited, which produces the viral proteins.
  • Interferons activate the cells which are involoved in specific immune response, killing the infected cells.
  • They will activate mechanisms of non-specific immune response by promoting inflammation causing immune system cells to the site of infection.
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Pathogens

Pathogens have protien on the surface of the cell, the immune system can recognise it as foreign, these protiens are called ANTIGENS.

T cells, B cells and macrophage all can recognise an antigen and when it does recognise it will trigger the immune response.

When a pathogen is engulfed and destroyed the major histocompatabillity complex will attach to pathogenic antigen. 

It will present foreign antigen and activate the T and B cell responses.

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