Migration, Identity and Sovereignty EQ1


8B.1 Globalisation has led to an increase in migration both within countries and among them



-       Created opportunities for people to migrate both internally and internationally

-       An emigrant is a migrant from the point of view of the country they are leaving, and an immigrant from the point of view of the country they are moving to

-       Migrant} someone who moves their ‘permanent’ residence from one country to another for at least one year


National and international migration patterns

-       Globalisation has led to industrialisation spreading around the world and a new international division of labour

-       Has led to rural-urban migration within and between countries, as people move from the economic peripheries towards the core regions

-       Migration patterns change due to global shift and outsourcing

-       Core regions} major cities and hubs containing economic activity

-       Core-periphery systems} uneven spatial distribution of national population and wealth between two or more regions of a country, resulting from flows of migrants, trade and investment

-       Known as backwash} flows of people, investment and resources directed from peripheral to core regions. Responsible for polarisation of regional prosperity (within a country)

-       Uneven economic growth links to natural advantages of certain areas

-       Any initial imbalance will eventually become exaggerated due to the outflow of migrants and resources

-       Global systems encourage rural-urban migration through mechanised agriculture and land grabs by state and agribusinesses

-       Complemented by employment pull factors found in urban areas linked to global supply chain growth in export processing zones (EPZs)


Case Study: Rural to Urban migration within China

-       1978} Introduced ‘open door’ policy, enabled FDI and foreign TNC’s to set up factories in china

o   20% of population lived in the cities, now 55%

-       The relocation of 400 million rural people gave Chinese cities a ‘site factor’ to attract
FDI: a large and modestly priced labour force

-       Chinese government’s decision to allow free movement allowed China to benefit from globalisation

-       229.8 million rural migrant workers

o   70% are employed in Eastern areas

o   2/3 in large or medium sized cities

o   2/3 work in manufacturing and construction

o   Migration underpinned economic development

-       Push (>) and pull (<) factors

o   < Higher rates of pay for non-agricultural workers

o   < Better living standards

o   > Authorities stopped equally distributing regional development, and are focussing on coastal cities (has increased the income gap)

o   < Growth of FDI encouraged migration (as it led to economic advances)

-       Issues involved with migration

-       Hukou (household regulation) system (1950s)} barrier to migration

o   Restrictions on movement

o   Everyone is registered at an official residence

o   Hard for migrant workers to change their residence location

o   Those moving cities must be registered and have a permit = expensive


No comments have yet been made