Migration, Identity and Sovereignty Case Studies

What case study links to rural to urban migration?
China - Approximately 300 million people migrated from rural to urban areas.
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What did the Chinese government create and how has it affected migration?
The hukou system - People moving from rural to urban areas have to buy a permit to qualify for residency and healthcare. 2/3 of urban migrants are men and their families stay in rural areas. This reduces poverty and unemployment unlike in Brazil.
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What are the advantages of rural to urban migration in China?
Increase spending and jobs in the cities, increases economic growth. Isn't an overpopulation problem due to the hukou system. Cheap labour is attractive for foreign firms and can increase investment.
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What are the disadvantages of rural to urban migration in China?
Increased pressure on public transport, underpopulation in rural areas (lack economically active), expensive for workers to permanently live in cities, children in rural areas have no father, increased pollution in cities.
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What is the EU Schengen Agreement?
Enables passport-free movement across most EU member states (22 EU members, 4 others).
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What are the advantages of the EU Schengen Agreement?
Allows the free movement of labour so job vacancies are filled, greater job opportunities, greater economic growth, increased FDI.
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What are the disadvantages of the EU Schengen Agreement?
Can cause overpopulation (UK Housing market crisis), increased pressure on health, housing and education services. Increases the risk of terrorism, can cause conflicts with different religions.
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What case studies link to policies to reduce high levels of migration?
Japan & Australia.
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What are Japans demographics and why?
27% over 65, 47 median age, falling population (half of 2007), 1% immigrants.
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What are the problems of Japans lack of migration?
They have a closed door policy - not allowed to migrate for work or to live. Huge language barrier for tourists & economic migrants. Ageing population reduced economic growth.
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How have Australia managed migration?
Skill based policy - have to take a test and pass to enter Australia. Immigrants have a 10% greater GDP per capita than non-immigrants. 88% of migrants are under 40(economic).
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State some facts about the migrants crossing the Mediterranean.
In 2015, over 1 million migrants left North Africa and the Middle East for Europe. 350,000 arrived in 2016. They were fleeing due to Syrian war & to get out of poverty in Africa. Most migrants are smuggled.
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State some facts about the Mexico to US migration.
14% of the US population are immigrants. 12 million Mexican population. 40% of US population believe immigrants steal jobs, housing & healthcare. 45% support Trump's wall. 50% believe they strengthen the economy.
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How have the US tried to reduce immigration from Mexico?
They have built a 700 mile fence ($2.4bn). Trump is building a wall (1000miles) costing $20 billion
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What case studies are related to comparing national sovereignty?
Singapore & Iceland
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How are Iceland retaining nation sovereignty?
Most of Iceland is empty or unsettled, 335,000 (over 50%) live in capital, 9% immigration population. All children's names must come from a specific list to preserve the language. 74% of Icelanders have the same religion. Isolated country.
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How have Singapore adapted to immigration and globalisation?
5.6 million population, split into 4 district (European, China, Chulia Kampon, Kampong Glam), 74% Chinese, 13% Malay, 9% Indian. Singaporeans have their own personal idea of identity.
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How has colonisation caused civil war in Rwanda?
Germany colonised in the early 1900s. The Tutsi's were in power and the German king established a border between the country. The first worlds war led to Belgium colonising Rwanda. Tutsi power was restricted and the Hutu's fought back.
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Furthermore - Rwanda civil war.
Belgium interfered and supported the Tutsi's by giving them weapons. However, Belgium left in 1962 and the Hutu's overcame the Tutsi power. In 1990, the President plane was shot down creating a mass genocide - 1 million killed.
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What case studies link to contested borders?
Ukraine & Russia - Crimea and Taiwan & China.
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What has occurred in Crimean Peninsula?
In 1944, it was captured by Russia from the Germans. Putin exiled the entire population of Uzbekistan as they collaborated with Germany. Russian guards opened fire on 3 Ukrainian vessels. Russia took over Crimean Peninsula & USA wanted to interfere.
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How is there conflict at the Taiwan & China border?
Taiwan - Has been independent since 1950. China have claimed sovereignty over Taiwan since the civil war. China claimed nations cannot have relationships with Taiwan and themselves. Taiwan President pursuing sovereignty (conflict with China).
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How was the British Raj formed?
The British Empire gained control over India (which most of it was called the Raj at the time) through trade and politics and expressed the English language, laws, cultures, arts and sports. A rebellion took place & Britain took full control.
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How has there been conflict in India due to the British Empire?
The British Parliament governed India & in return India supported them in WW1. Indians demanded independence & nationalists protested, leading to many deaths of protesters.
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What is the 1945 Wind of Change in Africa?
The British Prime Minister stated that African countries had the right to rule themselves and be independent.
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What case study links to growing inequalities?
Bolivia
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How have Bolivia achieved economic growth?
One of the fastest growing economies (4.7% 2018 GDP Growth rate), nationalised resources (government owned), reduced primary exports & used these to boost manufacturing, improve TOT, greater export revenues.
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How have Bolivia benefitted from the nationalism?
TNC's used to take 82% of profits made in the oil & gas industry, government now take 80%, improved healthcare, education, pensions & incomes. Reduced wealth inequality & national debt, Rise in gas (835%), electricity (150%) & telecommunication 300%
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Why are there UN forces in Congo?
21,000 soldiers in Congo, $1.15bn budget. The corrupt government and constant civil wars has caused UN interference. Fighting over natural resources. However, 15 UN peacekeepers killed in 2016 (most expensive peacekeeping mission ever).
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Why did the UN sanction Iran?
To limit Iran's nuclear programme. Banned all nuclear related material & tech from entering Iran & froze the assets of firms related in the trade. An arms embargo & travel bans in 2010. 2015, deal released all sanctions.
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Why did the IMF and WB impose structural adjustment programmes in Jamaica/
In the 1970's, oil prices fell causing a rise in debt for Jamaica. In the 1980's, IR were raised making the repayments of debts more expensive. Currency devaluation (WPIDEC), Austerity on education spending (8% fall in primary school attendance)
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What is a SAP?
Where the IMF and World Bank give out loans to countries in economic crisis. This forces them to focus on trade and production to raise economic growth. Jamaica, have now repaid more in loans than they have borrowed.
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What is used to keep sovereignty in the UK?
The countryside - the UK is well known for its countryside & these greenbelt areas aren't allowed to be built on.
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How has investment boosted China's economy?
Foreign-investment firms account for over half of China's imports and exports. Foreign firms have taken over traditional markets (McDonalds). The huge middle class in China created high demand for US goods & movies.
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What case studies relate to strong nationalism within a country & conflict?
Catalonia and Scotland.
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How have the Catalonians shown national sovereignty?
20% of Spain's GDP. They feel like they pay more than they should in tax and don't get a return with investment. Over 80% of Catalonians want independence. The regional government held a referendum (illegal. conflict).
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How have Scotland shown national sovereignty?
The 2016 referendum. Scotland have a strong national identity with their accent, slang, food etc. The referendum fell through because there was uncertainty on what Scotland will receive from the rest of the UK. (such as Brexit & EU).
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How are the environmental issues being addressed by IGO's?
The Montreal Protocol - Treaty designed to protect the ozone layer (reduce pollution). Kyoto Protocol. Investment into afforestation (Indonesia). Preserving endangered species.
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How have the UN created laws of the oceans & rivers?
The UN Law of the Sea convention - The seas are used for individual and common human benefit (reduces countries trying to claim the seas & national identity). The Helsinki Water convention rules - regulates international rivers. River Nile initiative
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How have the UN created laws over Antartica?
The Antartica treaty - The freedom of investigation by scientists. Reduces any conflict with trying to gain land.
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Card 2

Front

What did the Chinese government create and how has it affected migration?

Back

The hukou system - People moving from rural to urban areas have to buy a permit to qualify for residency and healthcare. 2/3 of urban migrants are men and their families stay in rural areas. This reduces poverty and unemployment unlike in Brazil.

Card 3

Front

What are the advantages of rural to urban migration in China?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the disadvantages of rural to urban migration in China?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the EU Schengen Agreement?

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