Migration

Globalisation and increasing migration

Globalisation provides opportunities, incentives and pressures

O- TNCs provide jobs. Free movement of labour e.g. EU, Technology for communication

I- Easier flows of capital, Better human rights

P- Conflict, Mechanisation

An emigrant is a migrant from the point of view of the country they are leaving and an immigrant from the point of view of the country to which they are moving 

Two main trends:

1. Rural to urban migration

2. International migration

A migrant is someone who moves their 'permanent' residence from one country to another for at least one year

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Different types of migrants

Economic migrant - Someone emigrating for better employment opportunities or an improved financial position

Refugee - A person who has left their home country because they have suffered persecution on account of race, religion etc.

Asylum seeker - A member of a persecuted social or ethnic group

Irregular migrant - A person who enters a country illegally or remains in a country without a valid visa or permit

Low-waged international migration - Low skilled workers moving countries 

Elite international migrants - Highly skilled/highly-paid migrants

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Rural-Urban migration: China

Push factors:

  • Transfer of improved technology in agricultural techniques has reduced the need for rural labour
  • Depressing incomes and quality of life in rural areas

Pull factors:

  • Higher wages in secondary industries
  • Better quality of life
  • Urban Hukou - access to housing, healthcare and education
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The EU

Free movement of labour has helped an international core-periphery pattern to develop.

The schengen agreement in 1995 removed most border controls.

Eu core region encompasses southern England, France, Belgium and Germany and labour migration flows from eastern and southern europe are overwhelmingly towards these places

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Polish migration to the UK

Push factors:

  • Unemployment - In 2004, unemployment rates were 19.5%
  • Fewer opportunities

Pull factors:

  • Skilled employment for skilled worers
  • Better paid jobs- 5.5 times higher per hour working in Mcdonalds
  • More job vacancies - 600,000 in the UK and 200,000 in Poland in 2004
  • Better services
  • Ability to work without needing a visa
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Differences in levels of international migration

SINGAPORE

Since 1980's - industrialised - waves of migration from Malaysia (386,000), South Asia (123,500)

Ethnic diversity due to British colonial past and transformation into finance

Many people live overseas e.g. UK

AUSTRALIA

Stricter migration rules and operates a points system for economic migrants

In 2013, only 190,000 economic migrants were granted access

JAPAN

Less than 2% of the population is foreign

Migration laws make it harder for newcomers to settle

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Changes that affect migration

Changes that can affect migration:

Economic - Currency fluctuation (potential for less remittances), Financial crisis e.g. 2008, Free labour market

Environmental - Natural hazards/disasters (earthquake - Forced migration), Global warming (water scarcity and potential for drought)

Political - War, Ease of getting a visa, changing government policy (e.g. Brexit and stricter rules on the types of migrants)

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Core Periphery model

The global economic cores are North America, Europe and Asia with an upward transition of growth into latin american megacities, India and Australia. There is a downward transition to areas such as Brazil

Upward transition areas benefit from FDI

Offshoring and outsourcing come from the core

CORE have industries, social elite, financial power, education system

PERIPHERY have mining, agriculture, brain drain, low wages

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Causes of migration

There are three main reasons why people migrate:

1. Work-related reasons

2. Re-join family members 

3. Conflict

The enforced displacement of people as a result of conflict and poverty is a significant cause of migration.

Since the beginning of the Syrian civil war in 2011, millions of people have been pushed to leave their homes

Countries bordering Syria (Egypt, Iraq, Jordan and Turkey) are hosting 4 million Syrian refugees. 1.1 million Syrians have applied for asylum in Europe

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Mediterranean migration

Many people from North Africa (Nigeria, Mali, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh) and the Middle East migrate by using unsafe fishing boats. Can include economic migrants and refugees.

By 2016, an estimated 1 million people had attempted the crossing

They move for:

Better job opportunities

Better standard of living

Conflict

They go to the Mediterranean (Italy, Greece, Spain, Germany)

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Challenges to national identity and sovereignty

National identity - the identity that results from a common background based on historical and modern culture, symbolism and feelings of belonging.

Sovereignty - the rights of a country to have its own government and run its own affiars within an internationally recognised territory

Challenges:

Cultural erosion, question what identity they have, identity of migrants may hold views from elsewhere - want more international laws.

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Migration within the UK

People with young children move out of London - need a bigger house or a 'better area'

High level of migration for employment - jobs for undergraduates

Teenagers move to go to University

Older people = less movement but may downsize

Reasons for migration:

  • Deindustrialisation in the 1980's
  • Rising costs of doing business - move to cheaper to premises
  • New attractive regenerated areas e.g. Cardiff

Effects

Higher house prices in London from demand from investors, London's global hub status has created imbalance in the UK's core-periphery, Over population, especially in the South

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Effects of free movement of people in the EU

POSITIVES:

  • Remittances help compensate for the labour loss
  • Help fill gaps in the UK labour market by working in admin, construction and catering
  • Bring different cultures
  • More skills

NEGATIVES:

  • Create unequal balance in population types (overpopulation)
  • No guarantee remittances will be sent in the long term
  • Put increased pressure on services
  • Cultural erosion in the host country
  • Minority may cause harm

Barriers - Deportation, visas, protests and politicians opinions

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Consequences of migration

Ethnicity - the shared identity of an ethnic group which may be based on common ancestral roots or cultural characteristics such as language, religion or clothing

Assimilation - the eventual adoption of the cultural traits belonging to a host or majority community by a migrant or minority community

Success of assimilation varies from place to place and depends on ethnicity and length of time that migrants are resident in the host nation.

Facts affecting the rate of assimilation:

  • Age
  • Language
  • Skill level
  • Desire of immigrants to assimilate
  • Location - if the groups live together there may be reduced incentive to integrate
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Turks in Germany

  • Dont settle in Germany even after being there for a long times
  • Make up 3 million and are poorly integrated
  • Have more children that the German people do
  • Form ghettos
  • Don't accept the legal orders or cultural norms e.g. language
  • People see muslim faith as a problem as women sufffer from domestic violence
  • Has been a gradual change - less want to return to Turkey

Unsuccessful assimilation because the Turkish people dont want to accept the German culture

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Impacts of migration

POSITIVE:

  • More tax payers - boost  in healthcare and services
  • Migrants do jobs locals dont want
  • Create money for the goverment from paying taxes
  • Cultural diffusion
  • Create a more diverse population
  • Younger populations can boost birth rates

NEGATIVE:

  • Language barriers
  • Pressure on housing and services
  • Some may claim benefits - cost the government money
  • Money earnt is sent back
  • Cultural erosion on the host country
  • Overpopulation
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Abilities

Skills - highly skilled/required skills/low level

Existing wealth - costs to migrate (visas and permits)

Opportunities - the presence or absence of international border controls

Migration policies - EU free movement of people 

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Nation states

A nation state is a political entity that has soverignty over its territory, authority to govern without outside interference, and reconition by other countries

Sovereignty - The ability of a place and its people and its people to self-govern without anby outside interference

The term 'nation' refers to a territorialised group of people who may lack sovereignty. 

There are aso some territories known as dependent territories or dependencies, which belong to a nation state. 

Vary based on:

  • Size
  • Religion
  • Demographics
  • Climate
  • Physical geography
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Difference between two nations

Ethnic and cultural composition:

SINGAPORE - A melting pot of Malaysian, Chinese, Indian and European influences, 48% foreign born and a mixture of religions

ICELAND - Population experience a strong sense of common identity and cultural homogeneity. Very little diversity and in 2008 Mcdonalds closed as pices were too high and stores became Icelandic food shops, 320,000 people in total

History and physical geography:

SINGAPORE - From 1926-66 major strategic role as a military hub under British admin, free port (no taxes on imports), Population of 5 million

ICELAND - Physical isolation from other countries and situated above mid-atlantice ridge in NA ocean

Homogenous culture: A society where there is very little cultural or ethnic diversity and most people share cultural traits with one another e.g. language, religion, dress and diet

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Origins of national borders

Linked to physical geography e.g lakes, rivers, coastlines and mountains. 

1. HISTORICAL EVENTS e.g. The border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland which has negoiated on the partition of Ireland in the 1920's

2. COLONIAL HISTORY drawn by foreign colonial powers

Many are the result of colonial history that took no account of the location of local ethnic or religious groups. 

In the 18th and 19th centuries, European nations divided up space in parts of Africa for their own gain. Europeans drew up boundaries, paying little attention to the people living there. The colonial powers were more concerned with dividing up Africa's raw materiaqls and water resources among themselves.

  • By 1990, many ethnic groups found themselves living in newly formed nations that in no way represented their own heritage
  • Some long-established ethnic regions were split, becoming new established state territory
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Countries affected by colonialism

IRAQ

  • When the Ottoman empire was divided by the Treaty of Sevres
  • A monarchy was established in 1921 and they gained independence from Britain
  • Secret agreement between UK and France and league of nations
  • Coups, conflict and wars
  • Force to overthrow a government

RWANDA

  • During the 1st world war Belgium gained control with supervision status in 1923
  • The UN formed and terminated Belgium and Rwanda became independent
  • Coup and civil war began in 1990
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Contested borders

Many border are contested because:

1. The desire of one state to absorb the territory of another

2. The desire to unite a culturally and ethnically similar population from neighbouring countries

3. To gain access to valuable resources

Instability and conflict can result in threats to territorial sovereignty because:

People may have differing opinions, to gain more control, any threat of hard power

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Ukraine and Russia

Many empires have ruled and divided the Ukraine - Ottoman empire and Russia. 

Ukraine gained independence from the soviet union in 1991 and within ukraine borders there are people with strong cultures and ethnic connections. Russia and Ukraine are in dispute over the crimean peninsula.

Ukraine want to join EU and NATO

After 1991, Government led towards NATO, 2013 wanted closer ties with Russia, 2014 EU friendly government

Borders are contested because:

  • Different sense of identities within the country
  • Opinions of people as to prorussia or pro-europe
  • Many ethnic Russians live in Ukraine 58% ethnic russians, 24% ethnic ukraines, 12% muslim
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Kashmire

There is a dispute between India and Pakistan on who should control the terriotry. Kashmire initially chose to be a part of India but most people are muslim, so pakistan didnt agree

The border is close to many regions

The situation has previously created conflict, demonstrations and insurgency

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Nationalism

European nationalism was an important factor in the scramble for empire in the 19th century, and resulted in repeated conflict in the 20th century.

Nationalism - The belief held by people belonging to a particular nation that their own interests are much more important than those of people belonging to other nations.

Colonialism was seen as improving and civilising the wider world

British empire:

  • After losing colonies to NA, Britain turned their attention to Asia, Africa and the Pacific.
  • In the 19th century an economy began to develop and people found an identity
  • The industrial revolution transformed Britain, the empire expanded to include India, Parts of Africa and many other territories
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The end of empire and new nation states

Why did the colonial era end?

  • The high cost of waging two world wars (UK was bankrupt)
  • Growing resistance to foreign rule (Ghandi campaigned for and won independence for India in 1947)
  • Growing concern for the injustice of colonial rule among young European citizens (Protests)
  • Demography (rapid population growth in developing nations while European coutries had completed the transition)
  • Europes shift towards post-industrial economic activity (less dependent on raw materials)

The rapid decolonisation left a 'pwer vacuum' and a troubled transition towards independence that didnt bring economic stability and development

Power was seized by the army e.g. In nigeria, DRC which led to resentment among social groups, creating future conflict - lack of expertise hindered development

USA and USSR made problems worse - 1950s and 1960s wars lost lives in Korea, Vietnam and Indonesia

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DRC

Geopolitical changes

  • Colonised by Belgium, 1870-1960 - Millions of Congolese were killed or worked to death by King Leopold II of Belgium
  • Independence as Zaire, 1960-90s - After a power struggle, Mobutu took power and renamed the country. He created hard regimes for TNCs but Zaire defaulted on loans
  • Regime change and conflict, 1990-2005 - Uganda and Rwanda helped a rebel leader to become president in  1997 (Kabila)
  • Attempted conflict resolution, 2005-present - UN peackeepers are trying to bring stability. The world bank has approved US$8 billion in debt relief

Factors influencing change

  • Raw materials - drew eurpeans to the region, proved to be a source of prolonged conflict
  • Geopolitical strategies- Aid and loans to alleviate poverty in DRC
  • Cross border ethnic ties - Between Rwanda and the Congolese is a legacy of colonialism.
  • Displaced refugees - are yet to be rehabilitated. Armed militia groups still operate in the East of the country
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Effects of empires on LEDC's

Implementing culture and language from the colonisers

Use of raw materials in colonies - many economeis still focused on primary products, these prices fluctuate and dont have as much value added as processed goods

Developed infrastructure

Created borders - led to conflict

Ongoing soft power

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New states since 1945

After the second world war, European nations like Britain declined and withdrew from colonial rule, leading to the emergence of new nation states in Africa and elsewhere

Often these nations wee unstable and ripe for revolution and corruption, with outside nations often trying to influence events for political or material gain

Lack of stability has led to decades of war and conflict, with many environemental, social and economic costs

1960s 'wind of change'

Most colonies became independent nations in Africa in the 1960s and the historical process of creating the new nation states was known as the 'wind of change;. 17 African countries achieved independence in 1960 and the change was blowing through the continent.

Growth in the UN: 51 members in 1945 to 120 by the end of the 1960s. (Shows speed and extent of decolonisation)

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Vietnam

Up to 1887, Vietnam was annexed by France as one of its colonies

During WW2 the colony was invaded and taken over by Japenese forces.

After the defeat of Japan, a provisional government was created as independent of french rule.

Vietnam was split into North communist and capitalist south. The communists started a campaign to capture south vietnam - the USA was persuaded to come to the rescue.

Impacts of the vietnam war:

  • Social - More than 3 million people were killed and 150,000 wounded and starvation became widespread
  • Environmental - Artillery and bombing left 26 million craters
  • Economic - Bombing in the north destroyed the industrial infrastructure, $950 billion costs to the USA, Farming industry was destroyed
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Role of the UN and the African Union

The African Union - a continental union consisting of 55 countries on African continent.

It was established in 2001

It has ongoing conflict in Sudan but the African Union has deployed 7000 peacekeepers from Rwanda and Nigeria.

The UN are offering aid in Darfur and refugee camps in central chad

The Darfur peace agreement was signed in 2006

2015: A peace deal signed to end civil war but conflict still continues

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Deregulation of capital markets

Globalisation has encouraged the mvement of capital between countries as government have reduced restrictions on foreign ownership. So businesses have been able to relocate to countries with low tax regimes

Act as tax havens for their profits, A Tax haven is a country with a nil or low rate of corporation tax, e.g. Bermuda

Tax havens sometimes offer:

  • Business transactions to take place in secret, encouraging tax avoidance and evasion of the financial regulations of other countries
  • Protection of personal financial information
  • Lack of transparency

Advantages of tax havens: No major frauds, areas attract more business so recieve more FDI and benefit from the multiplier effect

Disadvantages of tax havens: Damaged business reputation, unfair advantage for big companies, Tensions between countries e.g. Switzeland keep affairs hidden from USA

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Other tax avoidance

Transfer pricing - A financial flow occuring when one division of a TNC based on one country charges a division of the same firm based in another country for the supply of a product or service. It can lead to less tax being paid

Expatriate - Someone who has migrated to live in another country but remains a citizen of the state where they were born

Most governments and IGOs have accepted the emergence of tax-havens as they realise that FDI can mean that profits are heavily taxed. However, there are concerns that some large businesses are deliberately seeking ways of avoiding taxes

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Economic democracy

Economic democracy is where workers control most enterprises democratically through labour trusts and sharing 'levies' on corporate profits

E.g. The UK's cooperative group and John Lewis Partnership where workers control the enterprises they work in and after paying a capital assets tax on revenues share any surplus equally between them

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Buen Vivir

Buen vivir is to live well in a community with a healthy environment. Promotes individual rights and it subjugates the rights of the individual to those of the larger community, it promotes collaborative consumption and a sharing economy.

Buen Vivir argues that humans are not owners of the Earth and its resources, only stewards

BOLIVIA - Juancito Pinto scheme. Bolivian government programme as part of its economic policy docussed on fostering social development. The scheme aims to improve access to education by giving school vouchers to low income children, It facilitates school attendance by paying for books and transport

VENEZUELA - Have followed socialist principles where possible. Has large fossil fuel reserves than any other OPEC member. Until now, have been able to assign government spending to education, health and employment.

  • Rejected IMF and World bank offers of support
  • Worked with other socialist nations and provided cuba with free oil supplies
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Security Council

Their role - Maintaining peace between countries and has the power to make decisions binding on all member states

Consists of 5 permanenet members - China, France, Russia, UK and USA and 10 non-permanent members with places for 2 year terms

5 permanent members has veto power over UN resolutions allowing one of them to block adoption of a resolution, although debate will still take place

Differing political visions of security council memebrs 

Veto is the right to reject a decision made by a lawmaking body

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UN bodies and their role

  • The UN development programme (UNDP) - Published the human development index
  • The food and agriculture organisation (FAO) - Promotes agricultural development and food security
  • The UN childrens fund (UNICEF) - Provide aid around the world
  • The world health organisation (WHO) - International health issues
  • The UN population fund - Dedicates resources to combat HIV
  • The world food programme (WFP) - Provides food aid in response to famine and natural disasters
  • The office of the UN high commissioner for refugees - Protect the rights of refugees and asylum seekers
  • The UN Environment programme (UNEP) - Global environment agenda is set by assessing environmental trends
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Interventions by the UN

Forms of intervention used by the UN:

Sanctions - When member states agree to restrict trade or cultural exchanges with a country in hopes that it wil bring change

Troops - Drawn from the armed forces of many member states. Their roles vary from conflict prevention to peace enforcement in situations where actual fighting has taken place

Water crime trials - In 2008 proceedings began against Bosnian serb leader who was accused of genocide. He was senteced to prision

Healthcare and shelter for refugees - The UN high commissioner for refugees and they provide support to people who have been affected by conflict

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Successful vs unsuccessful interventions

Successful:

  • The UN negotiated an end to the salvadorean civil war
  • There was a peacekeeping mission in Mamibia
  • In 1991 a UN-authorised Us-led coalition repulsed the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait
  • The UN oversaw democratic elections in South Africa

Unsuccessful:

  • The UN mission to keep peace in Somalia was viewed as a failure 
  • The peacekeeping mission in Bosnia was vulnerable to prevent ethnic cleaning
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The 'war on terror', geopolitical relations and gl

At times some UN member states such as the UK, the USA and Russia decide to operate independently of the UN. This includes intervening in 'failed states', or conducting the 'war on terror'. These interventions have had profound impacts on geopolitical relations and global stability

Military intervention undertaken by a state outside the umbrella of the UN is known as unilateral intervention

Failed state - A country whose government has lost political control and is unable to fulfill the basic responsibilites of a sovereign state, with secere adverse effects for some or all of its population

War on terror - The ongoing campaign by the USA and its allies to counter international terrorism, initiated by al-Qaeda's attacks on the USA in 2001

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Intergovernmental Organisations and world trade

World bank - Funded by member states to finance global development

International Monetary Fund - To ensure global financial stability, funded by member states which is then loaned out

World trade organisation - To promote global trade by reducing barriers such as tariffs and duties

Bretton woods agreement = IMF, WB founded at Bretton woods conference in USA at the end of WW2 to help rebuild and guide world economy.

Protectionism - the practice of shielding a countrys domestic industries from foreign competition by taxing imports

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Structural adjustment and poverty reduction

SAPs consist of loans provided by the IMF and World Bank to countries that have experienced economic crises. To obtain such loans, countries must implement specific policies.

10 policy recommendations

  • A clear tax structure to avoid being in debt
  • Spending more money on issues e.g. education and healthcare
  • Taxing more people but ensuring the amount is fair
  • Interest rates focused on what the economy is doing
  • Competitive exchange rates
  • Trade liberalisation - encourage free movement of goods
  • Opening borders to encourage foreign direct investment
  • Private companies own state enterprises
  • Removing rules that impede market entry or restrict competition
  • Legal security for property rights
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Uganda and debt

in 1992, Uganda's debts totalled us$1.9 billion. It was unable to repay them. 

In 2000, it was among the first countries to benefit from debt write-offs by the IMF and WB through the HIPC initiative. The impacts were immediate:

  • Government spending rose by 20%
  • Free primary schooling was introduced, which meant that 5 million extra children now attended school
  • Before debt relief, the school enrolment rate was 62%. By 2015, it was 93%
  • Before debt relief, 20% more boys than girls went to school. By 2015, the difference was 2%
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Trade blocs

  • APEC - Australia, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia (21 in total) - Pledged to facilitate free trade by 2010 for developed countries and 2015 for developing
  • CARINS group - Argentina, Brazil, South Africa (17 in total) - Want to ensure their agricultural products are not excluded from markets in Europe and Asia
  • G20 - China, Egypt, Nigeria, Uruguay (21 in total) - Would not accept EU plans to include investment. They insist that rich countries make concessions on agriculture before there is any final agreement on services or reductions in tariffs on manufactured goods
  • NAFTA - Canada, USA and Mexico - To reduce tariffs on goods or traded between countries and protects intellectual property rights of companies, coordinate environment regulation
  • ASEAN - Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand - Accelerate economic growth, social progress, promote regional peace and stability, promote active collaboration, collaborate more effectively for greater utilisation of agriculture
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UN convention on the law of the sea (UNCLOS) - MAN

Defines the rights and responsibilities of nations over their use od the worlds oceans, establishing guidelines for businesses, the environment and management of natural resources

Came into force in 1994: by 2016 166 countries and the EU had ratified it

UN manages ratification and accession and supports its meetings

UNCLOS define the boundaries of coastal zones where countries have use of resources

Landlocked states are given access to and from the sea, without taxation

Over 90% of trade takes place by sea and 95% of internet traffic through submarine cables

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Helsinki Rules - MANAGEMENT OF OCEANS

Guidelines on the use of rivers and connected groundwaters that cross national boundaries

International treaties managing whole drainage basins must be based on 'equitable use' or 'equitable share'

Often unachievable if one or more parties has power e.g. Egypt in the Nile basin

Some governments have objected to the basin management - infringes sovereignty

In 2004, the helsinki rules were suspended by the Berlin Rules on Water Resources

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The millennium ecosystem assessment (MEA) - MANAGE

Launched in 2001

Aims to assess how changes in ecosystems have affected human wellbeing and how to conserve and use them sustanably

From 1950 to 2000 humans changed ecosystems rapidly to meet food, water and furl demands = loss of biodiversity

Cost of degraded ecosystems - diminish the ability to benefit future generations

Degradation could grow worse in the 1st half of the 21st century

Reversing the damage is possible but it will need significant changes in policies and practices

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The Montreal protocol on the depletion of stratosp

In 1973, ozone layer at the poles was thinning and the emission of CFCs and other substances were responsible for this depletion

It prevents harmful UV light from passing through the atmosphere - causes cancer and other diseases

International treaty was signed in 1989 - predict the ozone layer will return to 1980 levels by 2070.

It has been ratified by 197 countries - effective action to reverse damage to the environment

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The Convention on International Trade in Endangere

To manage international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants so their survival is not threatened

The trade with other factors such as habitat loss is capable of causing extinction.

Governments have agreed to protect tigers and rhinos from fashion and medicine in Asia. 

Critisised for allowing decisions to be influenced by commercial interests.

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The management of Antarctica

The Antarctic Treaty System

The treaty makes Antarctica a scientific preserve, with freedom for scientific investigation and bans on military activity.

12 countries signed the treaty in 1959 which was a diplomatic expression and by 2016 there were 53 countries

Their decisions create protocols of the environment, conservation of plants and animals, preservation of historic sites, management of tourism, collection of meterological data 

Threats:

  • As non-renewable resources become exhausted - incraesed pressure = exploit coal, oil, copper etc in the surroundign ocean
  • Tourism - more pollutants from ships and aircraft and the possibility of oil spills
  • Fishing 
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National identity

Reinforced through education, sport and culture and political parties

Nationalism has often been a cause of conlict in modern history. After each conflict, politicians and citizens seek to create a new world order based on the common values of liberty, democracy, and respect for human rights and the rule of law. This reduces the power of nationalism

English Countryside

Romantic movement to emphasise emotion, peace, nostalgia. A timeless unchanging area that is a part of British heritage. In 1945, the government established national parks to restrict development in the countryside

Multicultrualism affects national identity because of foods and religion, cultural diffusion, impact on clothes we wear, different demographics, immigration, willingess to encourage values in immigrant population

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Westernisation

Promoted a view of the benefits of the capitalist eocnomic model:

  • Brand orientated consumer cuture
  • Large western brands spreading western culture and values
  • Western lifestyle is based on consumerism
  • In terms of entertainment, they are increasingly provided by a small group of huge companies (SONY, UNIVERSAL, WARNER) own 80% of the market 
  • Malls are created with global brands in them to replace independent brands
  • Disney target classes in china and india, many of who see western brands as symbols of economic success and social fluidity
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Qatar Investment Authority (QIA)

It invests the surplus from Qatar's oil and gas wealth into economic sectors other than energy, to secure long term economic future of the state. Its estimated that over US$180 billion of assets are invested

In the UK the QIA own more than 12% of Barclays bank and is the largest shareholder of sainsburys

In Germany the QIA owns more that 17% of VW 

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Nationalist movements

Catalonia in the EU

A nation state by its statue of autonomy. Catalonia and Barcelona industrialised rapidly at the end of the 19th century and Catalonia has become wealthy

Since the transition to democracy (1975-82), Catalonia has recognised political and cultural autonomy and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities in Spain - this has occurred alongside the integration into the EU. They have their own distinctive culture and language since 1979, the government has recognised Catalonians as a separate nationality without full independence. 

Scotland

In 2014, they chose to remain part of the UK but for economic reasons scots think they are better off alone but incomes come from oil which have been low prices so independence could be a cost, ultimate hope is to create an indepdent state while remaining within the larger trading area of the EU.

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Political tensions in BRICS countries

Growth rates slowed in all apart from India from the 2008 recession and China cut steel production which created job losses

Russia has had conflict with the Ukraine and Syria

Brazil and South America have seen alegations of corruption and as their economies have slowed, the uneven pattern of costs and benefits of globailsation can be seen

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