Injury prevention and the rehabilitation of injury
Acute and chronic injuries
Acute injury - a sudden injury associated with a traumatic event.
Acute injuries are commonly caused by collision between two players, a fall from a horse or excessive impact from a piece of equipment.
E.g fracture of bone in jaw of boxer.
Torn knee ligament after a slide tackle in football.
Chronic injury - slowly developed injury associated with overuse.
Continued stress or overuse. Commonly caused by a sudden increase in the intensity, frequency or duration of exercise. Inadequate warm up or cool down or a limited range of movement.
E.g Tennis elbow, pain in runners heel.
Acute hard tissue injury - damage to the bone, joint or cartilage.
E.g fractures and dislocations
A partial or complete break of a bone as a result of an excessive force that overcomes the bone’s potential to flex.
A fracture can be diagnosed by
- inability to move the affected area.
Compound Fracture - a fracture that breaks through the skin, open.
Simple fracture - a fracture where the skin remains unbroken.
Type of fracture.
A splitting partial break in bone as a result of a bending action, like a “fresh twig”.
Transverse, Spiral and Oblique
A split across the length of the bone.
Transverse - left to right.
Oblique - diagonal.
Spiral - twisting diagonally.
A crack which produces multiple fragments. Shattering of the bone.
Break caused when by compression impact.
A bone fragment detached at the site of connective tissue attachment.
The displacement of one bone from another out of their original position.
Acute soft tissue injury - damage to the skin, muscle tendon or ligament.
E.g tears, strains and sprains.
Contusion - where blood vessels have ruptured underneath the skin e.g a bruise.
Sprain - overstretch or tear in the ligament that connects bone to bone
First degree - overstretch of a few ligaments
Second degree - partial tear
Tear - total rupture
Third degree - detachment of a ligament from the bone.
e.g the ankle of a games player, footballer or netballer.
Wrist of an athlete while bracing a fall.
Strain - overstretch or tear to muscle fibres or tendon that connects muscle to bone.
E.g 100m runner sprinting out of the blocks, lunging for a drop shot in badminton.
Abrasion - superficial damage to the skin caused by a scraping action against a surface.
In most sports, if the ref can see blood the game will stop.
E.g chafing during a marathon, slipping and falling on a netball court.
Blisters - friction forming separation of layers of skin where a pocket of fluid forms
Usually from bad quality, poorly fitting or new footwear.
Concussion - A traumatic brain injury resulting in a disturbance of brain function.
The symptoms of a concussion.
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