The Nature of Injury in Sport

Injuries in sport occur for a variety of reasons from a clumsy tackle in football to a stress fracture through over-use and although some injuries can be prevented, for the elite athlete who trains and competes regularly the occasionaly injury is unfortunately inevitable.

  • Created by: Emma
  • Created on: 26-03-12 10:15

Causes of Injury in Sport

Intrinsic factors: - Age - Sex - Body weight and composition - Muscle weakness - Joint hyperlaxity - Poor flexibility - Malaignment of body parts Extrinsic factors: - Training methods - Training volume - Inappropriate or unfamiliar playing surfaces - Inappropriate equipment - Inappropriate clothing such as footwear - Environmental conditions

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Injury Prevention

Intrinsic considerations: - Perform warm-up - Ensure appropriate fitness levels for task performed - Allow sufficient recovery time - Strength and conditioning training - Sound nutritional programme Extrinsic considerations: - Avoid abrupt changes to the athlete's training schedule, in terms of methods used and the intensity of training. - Ensure the correct and appropriate use of training equipment. - Appropriate clothing worn - Assess environmental factors - Ensure rules of activity are adhered to

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Injury Management

STAGE 1 First Aid: immediate treatment. STAGE 2 RICE: Rest Ice Compression Elevation. STAGE 3 Early management: diagnosis and treatment plan. STAGE 4 Maintenance of cardio-respiratory fitness whilst resting the injured part. STAGE 5 Strengthening and stretching exercises. STAGE 6 Developing sport-specific fitness components. STAGE 7 Attention to performing appropriate technique and using appropriate equipment. STAGE 8 A gradual return to competition with close monitoring of 'risk' behaviour.

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Sports Rehabilitation

-Hyperbaric Chambers Chamber delivers 100% pure oxygen to the injured athlete at very high pressure. Treats soft tissue muscular injuries and oedema, tendon and ligament damage, tissue infections and compromised immune systems arisen from over training. As pressure incerases within the chamber the amount oxygen inspired by the injured performer increases. Haemoglobin within the red blood cells quikcly becomes fully saturated with oxygen and because the oxygen is delivered at high pressure any excess oxygen is dissolved into the plasma component of the blood. The very high pressure allows oxygen to reach parts of the body at higher concentration levels that it wouldn't normally reach. This improves blood supply and the formation of a new blood cells, and a faster rate of cell turnover enhancing the growth and repair of tissue cells. - Hypoxic Tents Mimic the environmental conditions of altitude by regulating the amount of oxygen available to the injured performer whilst they sleep. By replicating the low-oxygen conidtions of altitude the body responds by increasing its production of red blood cells which then allows the fitness of the performer to be maintained even though training has ceased because of the injury. Oxygen tents are essentially specialised chambers that regulate the amount of oxygen available to the injured performer while they sleep. By replicating the the low-oxygen conditions of altitude the body repsonds by icnreasing its production of red blood cells which then allows the fitness of the performer to be maitained even though training has ceased because of the injury. Oxygen tents are therefore used to preserve the fitness of the injured athlete rather than to treat the injury itself and are most commonly used when an athlete's training is hampered because of injuries to the legs or feet. - Ice Baths Ice baths can treat both tissue swelling and soreness that occurs following hard exercise and is beleived to speed up the recovery process. Immersion in cold water allows even and controlled constriction of blood vessels surrounding all the muscles with fresh oxygenated blood carrying the nutrients and components necessary

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