PE Paper 2

What is the difference between simple and complex carbs?
Simple=easily digested by the body eg.chocolate. Complex=take longer for the body to digest.
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What is the glycaemic index of carbs and what effect does it have?
How quickly a carb releases its energy into the body-has an effect on when they should be consumed in relation to when exercise is taking place.
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What do foods with a high glycaemic index do and when should they be eaten?
Cause a rapid short rise in blood glucose which will be short lived, they should be consumed 1-2 hours before exercise.
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What is the difference between LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol?
LDL is bad and too much can lead to fatty build ups in arteries. HDL is good and can take LDL away from where it has accumulated to the liver where it can be disposed of.
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What are trans fats?
Unsaturated fats found in meat and dairy products. Supermarkets use artificial ones for longer shelf life but these lead to high levels of cholesterol so not too much can be consumed.
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What are fat soluble vitamins?
A,D,E and K. Found predominantly in fatty foods and animal products, stored in liver and fatty tissue.
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What are water soluble vitamins?
B and C. Found in a wide range of food.Not stored in the body so need to be taken daily but excess consumption won't have any effect as they are excreted through urine.
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What are electrolytes and what do they do?
Dissolved minerals in the body as ions. They facilitate fast nervous transmission and enable effective muscle contraction.
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What is a benefit of fibre in exercise?
It slows down the time taken for the body to break down food meaning a slower more sustained release of energy.
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What happens in the body as a result of dehydration?
Blood viscosity increases, reduced sweating to prevent water loss which can cause core temp to increase, muscle fatigue and headaches, reduces exchange of waste products, increased HR and decreased level of performance.
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How is glycogen loading done?
About 6 days before an event athlete depletes glycogen stores by eating just protein and training hard for 3 days. In the last 3 days before event the athlete will eat a high carb diet to replenish glycogen stores; this can increase stores by 2x.
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What negative effects during loading and depletion does glycogen loading have?
Water retention, heavy legs, affects digestion, weight increase, irritability and lack of energy which may affect training.
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What and when do athletes consume after exercise?
In the 20 minute window after exercise they consume something with a 4:1 carb:protein ratio such as chocolate milk.
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Why would an athlete take creatine supplements?
If they are a power athlete to replenish PC stores faster, allow ATP-PC system to last longer and improve muscle mass.
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What disadvantages do creatine supplements have?
Side effects eg. diarrhoea, water retention, bloating ect, hinders aerobic performance and not very much evidence to prove is works.
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Why would an athlete take sodium bicarbonate supplements?
If they are an athlete such as 400m runner as it increases buffering capacity of the blood so it can neutralise effects of lactic acid delaying fatigue and reducing acidity in muscle cells.
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Why might an athlete take caffeine supplements?
It is a stimulant so increases alertness. It also mobilises fatty acids in body so taken by endurance athletes as fatty acids are the desired fuel.
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What negative effects does caffein supplementing have?
Loss of fine muscle control, against rules of most sports and side effects eg. dehydration, insomnia, muscle cramps ect.
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What are the benefits of a warm up?
Increases muscle elasticity, releases adrenaline to increase HR, increased muscle temp so 02 dissociated more easily from Hb and an increase in enzyme activity producing ATP, increases nerve impulse speed, production of synovial fluid, rehearsal.
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What are the 3 stages of an effective warm up?
1.Some kind of cardio exercise to increase HR. 2.Stretching/Flexability exercises targeting joints and muscles which are going to be used the most. 3.Movement patterns that are going to be carried out eg. shooting drill in football.
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Why is important to do an active cool down after exercise?
It keeps blood flow high so o2 can be flushed through muscles to remove and oxidise any remaining lactic acid. Allows muscle pump to continue aiding return of blood to heart preventing blood pooling in veins which leads to dizziness. Also limits DOMS
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What are the principles of training?
Specificity (training is relevant). Progressive overload (training gradually gets harder). Reversibility (adaptations deteriorate). Recovery (to allow the body to recover from training-3:1 ratio is recommended)
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What are the FITT principles to improve performance?
Frequency-train more often. Intensity-train harder. Time-spend more time training. Type-must be relevant eg. continuous/circuit/fartlek.
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What is a macrocycle in periodisation and what are the 3 periods it is made up of?
It is the big period including a long term performance goal. 1. Preparation period-development of fitness levels. 2. Competition period-refining skills and technique while maintaining fitness. 3. Transition period-rest and recovery, injury rehab.
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What is a mesocycle in periodisation?
Usually 4-12 week training period with particular focus eg. to increase power.
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What is a microcycle in periodisation?
Period of 1 week/a few days of training sessions which is repeated through the mesocycle to achieve the aim of the mesocycle.
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What is tapering in terms of periodisation?
Reduction in volume of training just before a major event rp prepare athlete physically and mentally.
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What is peaking in terms of periodisation?
Planning and organising training so a performer is at their peak both physically and mentally for a major competition.
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What is double periodisation?
Where athletes have to follow a double periodised year because they are aiming to peak more than once eg. a footballer in premier league who is also playing in the world cup.
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What are muscle spindles?
Very sensitive proprioceptors which lie between muscle fibres that provide info on how far and fast a muscle is being stretched.
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What happens when muscle spindles send impulses to the CNS?
The CNS then sends an impulse back to the muscle bing stretched telling it to contract triggering a stretch reflex. The muscle contracts to prevent over-stretching (injury).
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What are golgi tendon organs?
Proprioceptor found between muscle fibre and tendon which detect levels of tension in a muscle.
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When are golgi tendon organs used in PNF?
When the muscle is contracted isometrically then sense the increase in tension in the muscle so they send inhibitory signals to the brain allowing the antagonist muscle to relax and lengthen-autogenic inhibition.
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What is a fracture?
A break or crack in a bone, this can happen in many different ways.
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What is a simple/closed fracture?
A clean break to a bone which doesn't break through the skin or damage any surrounding tissue.
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What is an open/compound fracture?
When the soft tissue or the skin has been damaged due to the fracture which poses a high risk of infection.
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What is a dislocation?
When the ends of bones are forced out of position, often due to a fall or contact with another player.
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What is a muscle strain?
When muscle fibres are stretched too far and they tear, very common in game sports where players accelerate and decelerates suddenly. Athletes who's training is high intensity and overuse of specific muscle groups occurs regularly are prone to this.
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What is a ligament sprain?
In sports where there is lots of twisting and turning the excessive force applied to a joint can cause it to stretch too far and even tear-it is very common to sprain your ankle.
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What is achilles tendonitis?
An overuse injury causing pain and inflammation of the achilles tendon which joins the gastrocnemius to the heel bone (biggest tendon in the body) it allows us to walk/run/jump.
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What is a stress fracture?
When muscles become fatigued and can no longer absorb the added shock of exercise the stress is transferred to the bone resulting in a tiny crack.
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What is tennis elbow?
Overuse injury of the muscles attached to the elbow that are used to straighten the wrist; the muscles and tendons become inflamed and tiny tears occur on the outside of the elbow-the area becomes very sore and tender.
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What are the 5 injury prevention methods?
Screening, warm up, protective equipment, taping and bracing and flexibility training.
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How can screening prevent injuries?
It identifies those at risk of any complications or injury due to exercise so a suitable conditioning plan can be done. Eg CRY-cardiac risk in the young uses an ECG to monster performers' hearts
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What is taping?
physiotherapists apply tape to joints and muscles so improve support and stability as the athlete moves to prevent further injury.
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What is bracing?
Bracing involves supports for muscles and joints to give stability if they are weak or have been previously injured. This is to prevent further injury.
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What are the 5 injury rehabilitation methods?
Proprioceptive training, strength training, hyperbaric chambers, cryotherapy and hydrotherapy.
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What are hyperbaric chambers?
They reduce the recovery time from an injury because they contain 100% oxygen so more oxygen can be breathed in and diffuse to the injured area where it can reduce swelling and stimulate red blood cell activity.
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What is cryotherapy?
The use of cooling to treat injury, ice baths are a form but whole body cryotherapy happens in cryogenic chambers to reduce pain and inflammation. Chambers are cooled with liquid nitrogen to below -100 degrees and the athlete stays in for up to 3mins
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How does cryotherapy aid injury rehab?
When the bodies cold the blood shunts away from limbs to organs to keep them warm so when the athlete gets out the blood shunts back to limbs full of oxygen.
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What is hydrotherapy?
Athletes do exercise in warm water (35ish degrees) as water reduces the load put on the injured site allowing more exercise than permitted on land to strengthen muscles around injury.
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What are the 6 recovery methods from exercise?
Compression garments, massage, foam rollers, cold therapy, ice baths and cryotherapy.
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What are the benefits of sport massage?
Increases blood flow to soft tissue meaning more oxygen and nutrients can pass through and repair any damage, removes lactic acid, relieves tension and breaks down scar tissue which if not broken down can cause mobility issues.
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Why is sleep important for recovery?
In deepest sleep (non REM ) the brain waves are at their slowest so blood flow is directed away from the brain towards muscles to restore energy; if sleep it cut short repair is cut short.
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What is acceleration?
The rate of change of velocity. To calculate= change in velocity (ms)/time (s). To calculate change in velocity=(final velocity-initial velocity)/time.
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What is momentum?
Product of the mass and velocity of an object, calculated by= mass x velocity.
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What is the vertical force working on a body in linear motion?
Weight because it takes into account the gravitational pull down to earth.
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What are the horizontal forces working on a body in linear motion?
Friction (arrow points forwards) and air resistance (arrow points backwards).
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Why does the friction arrow point forward?
It opposes the slippage between objects so when the possible slippage direction is backwards the arrow points forwards.
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What 3 factors can affect friction?
Surface characteristics eg. spokes as opposed to trainers. Temperature eg. in curling the sweeping motion slightly increases the temperature of the ice infant of the stone to decrease friction. Mass-larger mass=larger friction force.
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What 3 things does air resistance depend upon?
Velocity of the moving body-faster=more air resistance. Surface area of the body-larger=more are resistance. Shape and surface characteristics-streamlined shape results in less resistance eg. swimmers shave themselves.
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What is impulse?
The time taken for a force to be applied to an object or body, calculated by: force x time.
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What is newtons 1st law?
An object will remain at rest or at a constant motion in the same direction until acted upon by an external force.
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What is newtons 2nd law?
The size and direction of the force applied will cause the body to move in the same direction at a rate proportional to the force.
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What is newtons 3rd law?
For every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force.
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What are the 4 factors affecting stability?
Height of the centre of mass (lower=more stability). Position of line of gravity (should be over base of support). Area of support base (larger and more contact points=more stable.) Mass of the performer (larger=more stable.)
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What is a first class lever and where would you find one in the body?
Where the fulcrum is loaded in the middle of the load and effort-the elbow joint is one.
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What is a second class lever and where would you find one in the body?
Where the load is in between the effort and the fulcrum-the ankle during plantar flexion is one.
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What is a third class lever and where would you find one in the body?
Where the effort is between the load and the fulcrum- flexion at the hip joint is one.
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How can a lever have mechanical advantage?
When the effort arm is longer than the resistance arm (from the fulcrum) so never happens in a 2nd class lever.
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How can a lever have mechanical disadvantage?
When the load arm is longer than the effort arm (from the fulcrum) never occurs in a 3rd class lever.
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What is moment of inertia?
The resistance of a body to angular momentum, depends on the mass of the body and the distribution of mass around an axis.
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What effect does mass have on moment of inertia?
Greater mass means greater resistance to change so greater moment of inertia.
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What effect does distribution of mass around the axis have on moment of inertia?
The closer mass is to the axis the easier it is to turn so smaller the moment of inertia. Increasing the distance mass is distributed from the axis the greater the moment of inertia and resistance to angular motion.
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Why is a high knee lift important in sprinting?
Lifting the knee higher brings it closer to his hip joint reducing his moment of inertia so he can move his other leg through quicker to start another drive phase.
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What is angular momentum?
Quantity of rotation a body possesses, calculated by= moment of inertia x angular velocity.
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What is conservation of momentum?
related to newtons first law as something will continue to spin until an external force acts on it. Ice skater can spin until they move their limbs away from axis as they are on a friction free surface.
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What are the 3 factors which effect the horizontal displacement of a projectile?
angle of release, speed of release, height of release.
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What is the optimum angle of release for any projectile when its landing height is the same as its starting height?
45 degrees, anything higher needs a bigger angle of release visa versa.
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Why can a taller fielder in cricket throw a ball further?
Because their height of release is higher than others, so release point for anyone when throwing should be as high as possible.
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What is a parabolic flight path?
A uniform curve which is symmetrical at its highest point.
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When does a projectile have a parabolic flight path?
When the weight force is larger than the force of air resistance.
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Why does a shuttlecock not show a parabolic flight path?
Because the air resistance acting on it is dominant over the weight force (it is light).
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What are the two types of drag force?
Surface drag=friction between the surface of an object and the fluid environment eg. this is why swimmers shave all their body hair. Form drag=impact of the fluid environment on an object-relates to streamlining.
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What is drafting in cycling?
Where a cyclist will tuck in behind another cyclist in oder to use their slipstream (break in the air) so that less effort is needed to travel at the same speed.
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What 3 factors can increase or decrease drag depending?
The velocity of the moving body (greater=greater drag). Surface area (large=increased drag). Shape and surface characteristics of the body (streamlined, aerodynamic shapes reduce drag).
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What is the Bernoulli principle?
When air travels over an object and has to travel further it therefore has to travel faster to meet the air travelling beneath the object on the other side. Air travelling faster exerts less pressure than air travelling slower=pressure gradient (lift
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What happens if the angle of attack of an object is too great?
Lift is reduced and drag increases causing the object to stall (optimum around 25 to 40 degrees)
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How can a downward lift force be created by a race car/cyclist?
The car can change the shape of its spoiler to cause bernoulli principle. The cyclist can crouch over his handlebars to cause bernoulli's principle.
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Card 5

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