- Hippocrates-the four humours
- Galen-built on Hippocrate's work
- Andreas Vesalius-breastbone has 3 parts not 7,jaw bone is one bone,invisible blood holes in to the heart do not exist
- William Harvey-proved the heart acts as a pump
- Ambroise Pare-replaced boiling oil for gunshot wounds with egg yolks, turpentine and rose oil. Used ligatures to stop bleeding (silk thread around blood vessels) and replace cauterising. Also designed false limbs.
- Edward Jenner- first vaccination (smallpox)
- Louis Pasteur- germ theory