Years of Crisis
Problems between King Charles and Parliament - The Years of Crisis
- Religious Problems
Divine Right of Kings - Charles believed that he had been chosen by God to become King, therefore anyone who challenged his rule or laws was directly challenging God. Parliament did believe in the Divine Right of Kings but felt that this did not exempt the king from the laws of the land. Laws made by previous kings should be followed by everyone including the king as they had also been chosen by God.
The Church of England - Charles was head of the church which undermined the Pope. It also meant that anyone who challenged the king was also challenging God and their religion. The Parliament believed that although the king was the head of the church, this did not give him unrestricted power, he must still follow the laws made by previous kings.
The Arminians - Charles favoured a religous group named the Arminians who were a branch of the Protestant religion who celebrated Divine Right. The Arminians supported the view that the king should not be challenged in any way but Parliament opposed this view. The Arminians were also often asscociated with Catholiscm ad many believed that Charles was attempting to revert the country's religion back to Catholiscm.
Henrietta Maria - In 1625 Charles married the French Catholic, Henrietta Maria in an effort to strengthen Britains relationship with France.Charls hoped that France would unite with England against Spain. Henrietta also had a dowry of 240, 000 pounds which Charles needed to fund the war with Spain. The marriage agreementalso contained toleration for Catholics in England. Tthis marriage cemented the view for many that Charles was attempting to change Englands religion back to Catholiscm. Henrietta Maria had her own Catholic chapel in which she could practise her religion as well as catholic servants. Henrietta Maria was also an absolutist and so believed deeply in the Divine Right of Kings, this opposes Parliaments view that Charles' power has some limits.
- Foreign Affairs and Buckingham
Buckingham - Charles favourite and his chief minister. He came between Charles and Henrietta Maria and came to be hated by all of England.
Cadiz Eexpedition 1625- Buckingham leads an expediion in an attempt to capture the Spanish port Cadiz and also attack the Spanish fleet (anticatholic). Buckingham lost control of the army when a huge wine store was found and discipline broke down amongst the troops. Troops had to be withdrawn. Many soldiers died on the return home due to lack of food and disease. Charles has wasted money from Parliament…